Viavi release GigaStor ™ to expand the SDN test market

Former JDSU, now Viavi today announced the release of a new generation GigaStor ™ software version, to further expand its testing and monitoring solutions business in software-defined networks, and enhance virtual environments, cloud environmental services, optimize the user experience. With the GigaStor ™ advanced technology, network and server teams team can crawl and save the continuous flow of 250GB or 1TB, provide backup data for the depth of performance, forensic analysis. It is reported that, Viavi 2015VMworld conference will showcase the new software configuration.

Charles Thompson Viavi senior director of product management, said: "At present, IT team on track virtual server resource utilization and waste a lot of time due to the crawl reference data is very limited, these teams are usually not found in the application virtualization layer. Problems With GigaStor ™, engineers can see the virtual environment user application experience and service experience, including historical data and real-time data, both to reduce the time cost, and can help end users solve the relevant problems. "

If there is no auxiliary GigaStor ™, the engineer may have to spend hours repeatedly test to diagnose the cause of a network error. GigaStor ™ can obtain data packets directly from virtual switching infrastructure without the need to push data to the physical environment. Engineers can deploy it to any virtual host, to achieve long-term package-level layer collected and stored data, and the data can be decoded, data analysis and data display. In addition, GigaStor ™ can also provide all available data packets simultaneously for real-time analysis of the IT team to effectively improve troubleshooting accuracy and processing speed.

Whether in the VMware ESX host internal or in 10G, 40G Ethernet links which, with GigaStor ™ software and equipment, network teams can detect and analyze all of the virtual data center traffic.


ODN is an optical network based on PON equipment, mainly between OLT and ONU provide optical transmission channel. From the function points, ODN from the central office to the client can be divided into the feeder, wiring, home line subsystems and optical fiber cable terminal subsystem.

ODN network construction cost is relatively high, up to 50% to 70% of the total investment is FTTx investment focus. And also the difficulty of FTTx management. ODN use more P2MP topology, the network connecting nodes and more complex network management. Fiber sensitive than copper, more easily damaged. Therefore, ODN efficient construction, operation and maintenance of critical need an intelligent, accurate management solutions to ensure ODN network has been fully utilized, effective long-term investment protection.

As we see in the supermarket food and other commodities have the same bar code can be added in the fiber head tag of fiber for effective management, we call EODN; now this technology has become the major carriers and ITU-T, etc. standards organizations to discuss and focus.

Is it possible without changing the ODN passive features to address two core issues ODN managed to achieve ODN automated management?


Huawei proposed iODN (intelligent ODN) solutions. In iODN solution, ODN intelligence product adds the following features: Fiber identity management, port state collection, the port to find instructions, visualization tools PDA.

iODN solution enables automatic entry ODN fiber connection and management information to ensure accurate and timely information to synchronize inventory system. At the same time, through intelligent LED indication PDA visualization software and iODN device can achieve optical fiber Automation to Find, precise operation, which greatly improve the efficiency of operation and maintenance, ODN network to achieve efficient operation and maintenance. In addition, based on iODN architecture, based on the inventory system can develop a variety of value-added applications, to achieve the construction, operation and maintenance of the whole process automation.


ZTE launched the "eODN (Easy ODN)", GIS geographic information systems and R intelligent identification system based on. ODN network cycle of the system in all aspects of planning, design, construction and maintenance, the pre-planning, construction and ongoing maintenance mid-effective to combine the use of contactless smart fiber management systems to improve efficiency and achieve the various departments to share information and to optical fiber seamless transfer, let ODN network construction has become a dynamic virtuous circle, to ensure its sustainable development.


FiberHome adhere to the actual situation from the traditional starting ODN design products, we proposed "sODN (smart ODN)" complete solution.

System fully into account the existing traditional ODN operation and maintenance characteristics, and strive to ensure that existing employees can easily adapt to new intelligent ODN intelligent management mode implementation. System combines low power consumption, long life, easy to maintain, by means of the new information to make ODN network to become an organic whole, improve customer perception.

Beijing Jie Wo bring 100G Series debut CIOE 2015

The 17th China Optoelectronic Exposition (CIOE 2015) will be held next Monday the forthcoming opening in Shenzhen, then, 100G high-end optical module manufacturers professional - Beijing Jie Wo debut this year will be special equipment exhibition.

The exhibition, Beijing Jie Wo will be the exhibition site, demonstrating its 10G / 40G / 100G full range of optical modules, and optical communication applications subsystems, including:

- 100G CFP4 / CFP2 / CFP LR4 Transceivers
- 40G MSA 300Pin Transponder, 40G QSFP+ LR4&SR4
- 10G SFP+ Series Transceivers
- 100G SOA, EDFA, OEO, miniaturization WDM subsystems

Meanwhile, Beijing Jie Wo exhibition will also work with industry-leading instrument manufacturers, such as Japan Anristu etc. joint in the field of dynamic business presentation 100G BERT / portable scanner glass instrument and 100G CFP2 / CFP4 optical modules!

Gigalight release first-generation 100G QSFP28 family of products unveiled CIOE 2015

August 21, 2015, Gigalight officially released the first generation 100G QSFP28 family of products, including: 100G QSFP28-SR4 optical modules, 100G QSFP28 active optical cable (AOC) and 100G QSFP LOOPBACK module. Gigalight will demonstrate at the 17th CIOE China International Expo light scene.

100G QSFP28-SR4 optical modules

The first generation of design performance 100GE QSFP28 SR4 meets IEEE 802.3bm 100GBASE SR4 and InfiniBand EDR protocol standard. The emitted light power range + -0.5dbm receiving OMA protocol parameters slightly lower standards, but to fully meet 75 meters OM3 fiber transmission and OM4 fiber 100 m transmission applications. The actual testing environment based on more stringent standard error rate testing (less than -15 times square), transmission OM4 fiber did not find any errors. The module uses Gigalight self-developed lens and light engine integrates four 25Gbps data channels and typically consumes 3.2W, support in addition to other projects outside TX power digital diagnostic functions. The module received a very good optical eye diagram and electrical eye performance.

The key parameters of the test See chart below: (TX optical eye diagram, RX electric eye, JETTER test chart, 100M OM4 test shots)

TX optical eye diagram:

TX optical eye diagram

TX optical eye diagram

TX optical eye diagram

TX optical eye diagram

RX electric eye chart:

RX electric eye chart

JETTER test chart:

JETTER test chart

Two other family Gigalight products based QSFP28-SR4 module key technology developed 100G QSFP28 active optical cable (AOC) and 100G QSFP28 LOOPBACK module.

Intelligent network: with data center downtime to say goodbye!

Internal data centers are quietly staged a revolution. Data Center Infrastructure Management (DCIM) represents when the IT and data center facility features integration may reach success. Properly implemented, DCIM can improve energy efficiency, optimize the layout of physical equipment, improve strategic planning and enhanced resource availability.

DCIM not alone. The new IT trends are emerging - cloud computing, data center consolidation and in promoting business growth, enhance corporate profitability levels increasing dependence on IT, it has brought a strong impetus for the development of DCIM. In the joint effect of these factors, many companies began to transform the data center into a profit center.

Industry research firm Markets and Markets, said this trend is evolving into a huge potential business opportunities. According to the company it predicts that by 2017, global DCIM's value soared from $307 million in 2011 to $3.14 billion, a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) over 47%. In the massive data center storage with PB (petabytes) of data will be the main bank's DCIM's attempt. For the banks, productivity, business agility and cost-effectiveness has significant meaning in terms of return on investment.

For this reason, DCIM many large enterprises have become a hot topic. Not only manufacturers that, even if telecom operators, infrastructure providers, and even national and regional governments are worth singing carols. Users include Google, Japan Telecom, China Mobile, has confirmed that its new data center in Hong Kong will adopt DCIM solutions. At the same time, as the government began to promote the SAR in the data center as the focus of the many policy advantages, DCIM popularity is bound to accelerate the pace.

Although all aspects of society have been a lot of publicity for DCIM, but the real advantage is the DCIM - farewell downtime era. In fact, in the next five years, when the DCIM underutilized, "stop" and may even disappear from the IT vocabulary. How to achieve this goal? The answer lies in the intelligent network. With the intelligent network, CIO will be able to return at the center of the board environment, to create a highly reliable, sustainable and intelligent "always on" network.

Today, network intelligence from the hardware begins. For example, some current senior patch panel for each port provides a tracking buttons and LED is. The new generation of chassis, such as the US CommScope SYSTIMAX 360 iPatch G2 High-density fiber optic patch panel can automatically detect the Alpha / Beta module polarity, and send reports to the management software.
The new design, data-center as the focus of management software, such as SYSTIMAX imVision System Manager, you can implement port management. With these tools, data center IT professionals can quickly track existing connections, isolate potential problems and improve the availability, in order to achieve a true end to end connection management.

Like DCIM solution provides data center physical infrastructure visualization view 20/20, while providing details of the management and control functions, and provides real-time health status information infrastructure. In the near future, with automation, we can achieve optimal management based on business requirements and SLA. So that will be transformed into a higher return on investment, higher resource efficiency and greater operational flexibility, in today's highly competitive and challenging market environment, these three elements for enterprises of special significance.

Application of fiber optic connectors and terminals

Fiber optic connectors and A/V industry BNC connector commonly used by different, with fiber optic technology continues to mature and get progressive development. Effect of copper connector signal loss of AV systems are generally not large, but the optical connection is different, its transmission system in each interface will play a very big influence. Let's look at the physical fiber optic connection problems arising from optical fiber transmission equipment itself may direct connection, but in some cases, most or almost all connectivity options are all man-made fiber transmission personally. Semaphore fiber optic cable in the signal transmission process of the loss is mainly determined by the quality and type of use of fiber optic cables, each connecting terminal will have some signal loss. Depending on the type of fiber optic connector selected by the user, the connection end signal is lost a combined total may exceed the amount of signal loss of the fiber optic cable itself.

Maintain a normal operation

In the optical fiber system design, system to normal operation, it reached very good results, in the system design, we need to consider the system may occur some unexpected problems, and let the system has reached normal operating results. In the system design, we have to consider the worst system possible situation and plan accordingly, expecting better operating results. Fiber Optic Connector designer must keep in mind to this idea. In system design, security, stability, system connection requires smooth fiber ends, Founder. The connection between the client and the client must be accurate and correct, or even to achieve micron precision, millionths of a meter. Commonly used diameter multimode fiber from 50-62.5 microns and single-mode fiber is only 8-9 microns in diameter. This compared to the diameter of a human hair in diameter (17-180 microns), showing no trace of error can bring in catastrophic losses.

Precision optical fiber connection to the equipment requirements are very strict, so connector must be very clean. Fiber optic connectors and accessories are usually mounted on a set of house, a finger print or external dust might seriously affect connector performance, even lead to transmission failure, therefore, when the connector is not connected, it should be kept in clean protective cover in.

In connection, we should also be fiber optic connector wedge tight, in the present all the fiber optic connector design, through the "collar" to ensure accurate at the time with the connector. Viscose fiber terminals or by crimping the ferrule inside the confining, as a permanent member. After inserting a built-in optical fiber, put the smooth ferrule end mill for fiber optic connectors provide a smooth interface. Rings are usually made of relatively hard material such as ceramics, of course, it may be stainless steel, plastic or tungsten carbide material, SC, ST and FC common ferrule diameter 2.5 mm, LC universal ferrule diameter 1.25 mm. Since the feature rings can be produced in accordance with the requirements of precision, it will become the primary fiber optic connector to determine important characteristics. Among the many connections ferrule, the spring-loaded ferrule ensures the container is connected coaxially aligned between the optical fiber and LED or laser source.

With the expansion of technology development and application of fiber optic connectors are also developing rapidly. Fiber optic connectors used now on the market there are about 12 kinds and even more, each of which is to meet the specific needs and came into being, of course, there are some technical limitations. Now the market trend is mainly towards the moderate price, compact connector model development to support greater transmission density of new transmission distribution system requirements. As user expectations, as the continuous development of the telecommunications industry also contributed to the large-scale application of optical fibers is due to various types of communication and entertainment services on fiber-optic connections due to the rapid growth in demand largely.

Consider terminal

Traditionally, fiber optic terminal is generally slower, the price is higher, the equipment requirements and technical requirements are high. When considering a single-mode fiber optic cable in the terminal, you should take into account several factors in this regard. In some cases, we can choose some already set in accordance with various fiber types good terminal cables.

Tailor-mount applications, we can select a specific terminal, however, adopted after splicing tools, you can reduce on-site terminal extension of the length of the single-mode fiber, reducing the use of the equipment and technology of the quantity demanded. After the multimode fiber optic cable, the new splicing method using a simple optical fiber cutting method, will be assembled into a pre-designed cable connector / cable. This method is very simple, but the fiber-to-fiber connectors butt joints usually uses a special optical gel, so that fiber optic terminal curdle.

Latin American FTTH / FTTB line during the year to reach 5.1 million

Market research firm Pyramid's latest report says Latin American FTTH / FTTB connections will reach 5.1 million during the year, the next five years the average annual compound growth rate of 34.9%, but compared to DSL remains the main broadband access technology in the region.

Pyramid expects the total amount of fixed lines in Latin America during the year reached 163.8 million, an increase of 2.3% compared with 2014, the average annual growth rate of the next five years to reach 2.1%.

Pyramid noted that broadband is the main driver of growth in Latin America Wireline Communications, 2020, the total number of fixed lines in the region will reach 181.9 million. In contrast, FTTH / FTTB development, there are many potential. 2015 Latin American FTTH / FTTB penetration is less than 6.9%, DSL accounted for 57.5% of the market in 2014, by 2020 there will still be 40% of the market. Price question is now the bottleneck problem in Latin America FTTH / FTTB development encountered.

Fixed construction potential solutions - VDSL

"Broadband China Strategy" by 2020 China's fixed broadband subscribers to reach 400 million fixed broadband household penetration rate reached 70%, the number of Internet users reached 1.1 billion urban broadband access capacity of 50Mbps, rural broadband access capacity 12Mbps. How to effectively implement such an ambitious communications project is placed in front of the major operators of a problem. China from the current mainstream carriers fixed construction situation, FTTH undoubtedly get the operator's favor, but full use of technology to achieve FTTH broadband speed, how many there are some problems, such as high construction costs, low profitability, engineering deployment long period, the old district FTTH difficult, interoperability and so on. So, how to solve these problems the operator's problem? VDSL technology is a promising solution.

From the perspective of technical maturity perspective, VDSL technology in Europe, North America, after years of business we have been popular. FTTH construction interoperability issues that exist in a relatively different manufacturers PON and PON terminal between the central office, the interconnection and VDSL VDSL central office terminal has been quite mature. VDSL infrastructure currently the main chip only Broadcom, Lantiq, Ikanos, the mainstream of the terminal VDSL chip includes Broadcom, Lantiq, MTK, Triductor, Ikanos, central office and terminal chip must follow the DSL interoperability specification TR67/TR100/TR114, and must Broadband Forum the IOP testing before commercial DSL interoperability lab. VDSL equipment interoperability is guaranteed by the main chip firmware, qualified VDSL CO or CPE main core must Broadband Forum certification, including TR67 (ADSL), TR100 (ADSL2/2+), TR114 (VDSL2), TR115 (VDSL SRA etc) specification test. Chinese shipments of mainstream VDSL terminal chip manufacturers have Broadcom, Lantiq, MTK, Triductor, 2013 China Telecom organized the interoperability testing VDSL, including interoperability testing G.vector, G.INP and other advanced features of the ideal test case and can meet the requirements of different manufacturers interoperability. In addition, VDSL terminal chips in addition to support VDSL2 central office, but also backward compatible with ADSL/2/2+, ADSL and VDSL to meet then mixed scenarios.

From the perspective of the carrying capacity in terms of bandwidth, VDSL technology also meet the 2020 Chinese urban broadband access broadband China strategy proposed to achieve 50Mbps, 12Mbps rural broadband access capacity requirements. VDSL2 technology is quite mature, with a capacity of over 300 meters 50Mbps bandwidth. In addition, Vectoring technology has been in commercial quantities in 2014, found within 300 meters downstream can support 100Mbps of bandwidth capability, within 500 meters of 80Mbps bandwidth capabilities. technology is expected after 2015 with commercial power to support bandwidth capability within 100 meters of 1Gbps. Therefore, VDSL+FTTB or VDSL+FTTC this application mode can well meet the requirements of broadband speed broadband China strategy.


From the perspective of the construction costs, the use of FTTH technology deployment laying fiber to the home network requires a comprehensive, but VDSL technology can take full advantage of the existing network of the original copper line resources already deployed in some twisted family, if need to deploy VDSL, you do not need to reproduce the wiring line cost savings. Secondly, VDSL network without deploying FTTH networks like optical splitter, optical connectors and other devices, which are very expensive period, saving the cost of network components. In addition, VDSL terminal and infrastructure costs are much lower than FTTH terminal and infrastructure costs, which reduces the equipment cost. Overall, construction costs line VDSL users about one-third of the construction cost of the first-line PON subscribers. This cash-strapped operators provincial company or to the city, it means they can spend less money, construction of a high-bandwidth network, which also meets the requirements of the national broadband strategy.

From an engineering point of view deployment, FTTH network construction is equivalent to re-building the access network, the central office OLT main work includes deployment, debugging, fiber optic cabling, terminal and infrastructure interoperability testing and so on, a long construction period. The VDSL network deployment is relatively simple, and can utilize the existing copper line resources, eliminating the need for network cabling link, simply replace the ADSL central office VDSL central office, and there are no interoperability issues, VDSL terminal equipment can be directly and VDSL infrastructure equipment to achieve docking, greatly simplifies the difficulty of engineering deployment, while compressing the construction period and construction costs of the project deployment.

Simply put, in China FTTH construction in full swing wave, there VDSL technology still has great significance:

(A) for the network construction funds tight provinces or cities, you can take advantage of VDSL technology for broadband speed, while saving construction costs;

(B) to ensure high-bandwidth fiber to the home at the same time an effective solution to difficult issues, improve user viscosity;

(C) the requirements for the network construction period short speed network transformation project, the network may consider the use of VDSL technology to FTTB+VDSL or FTTC+VDSL way to achieve broadband speed, significantly shorten the construction period.

Here are the main scenarios VDSL terminal:

(A) DSLAM upgrade part of the current network by ADSL DSLAM support the board upgrade to VDSL cards, VDSL gateway can be directly mounted at DSLAM, ADSL cat replace user's original VDSL terminals, broadband upgrade and provide IPTV, OTT etc. can control business.

VDSL terminal

(B) replace the existing ADSL infrastructure by MDU
If the original can not be upgraded to support VDSL DSLAM central office, FTTB+VDSL technology can be used in new residential MDU or replace the original can not be upgraded DSLAM. VDSL gateway can be directly mounted in the MDU, the user to replace the original cat ADSL VDSL terminals, broadband upgrade and provide IPTV, OTT, etc. can control business.

2019 global operator SDN market spending will surge to $5.7 billion

Market research firm IHS recently pointed out by the service provider for network operators to enhance service flexibility and efficiency in order to remain competitive drive, it is expected to operators worldwide software-defined network (SDN) software, hardware and services market will grow from 2014 $103 million in 2019 soared to $5.7 billion.

IHS Carrier Networks senior research director Michael Howard said: "We are now still in the service provider network transformation to a software-defined network of early stage, which is expected lengthy transition period will last 10-15 years, although its momentum strong, but we will not see widespread commercial deployment in 2016 - the situation most of the network controlled by the SDN will take place in 2016-2020 years. "

IHS predicts that service providers around the world will increase its spending on SDN software in between 2015-2019, an increase of 15 times.

As the demand for professional and technical services SDN rising, operators now also learning the technical expertise in this area to suppliers.

IHS expects between 2014-2019 CAGR SDN project outsourcing services will reach 199%.

US successfully developed white laser

Recent US research and development breakthroughs in optical communications award, the successful development of white laser and the successful development of new materials, is expected to bring ultrafast all-optical communications, optical communications industry again welcome the revolutionary events.

Since the 1960s the advent of the laser has been in a number of areas, "flourish", but it has been a short board, is the only issue single wavelength of light. Now, US scientists have solved this problem, they first developed a laser capable of emitting white light. The researchers said more bright white light laser capable of efficient than light-emitting diode (LED), the future will play an important role in lighting and wireless communications.

According to physicist organization network on July 30 reported that the US electronics, computer and energy engineering college of Arizona State University team led by political rather keep developed a novel nano-flakes. The size of the piece of thin semiconductor is only one fifth of a human hair, the thickness of only one-thousandth the thickness of a human hair, which has three parallel sections, each section can emit red, blue and green in one of the three primary colors color laser. The entire device can transmit all visible light laser, from red to green to blue, or any color in between, when the three primary colors "encounter", it appears white laser.

New research into the mainstream so that the laser light source to replace LED step forward. Laser brighter, more energy efficient and can provide a more accurate and vivid display of bright colors, can be used on the computer and television screens. The researchers also confirmed that their new device can emit display than the current industry standard of 70% more color.

Another important application of this study will be visible or communications, or future interior lighting system can also be used for communication. Scientists are currently developing a technology called "Li-Fi" (that is visible to wireless communications, optical pulses with fast wireless transmission of information). And now the "Wi-Fi" using radio waves. Li-Fi speeds can reach 10 times the Wi-Fi, and white laser Wi-Fi may be currently being developed LED-based Li-Fi are 10-100 times.

Although this concept is very important, but if we want to apply to this laser hair white within a real-life lighting or display systems, also face great obstacles. The researchers said the next key is to get the same white laser in battery driven. On the current demonstration, the researchers must use a laser to make the electronic light. The latest experiment will ultimately pave the way white laser under electrical operation.

Explore 100G green and energy-saving

With the vigorous development to accelerate and the internet, cloud computing, mobile Internet and other new technologies of China's information construction of new business, the scale of the rapid expansion of the communications network, the communications industry showed rapid growth of energy consumption. Ministry of Industry, to the end of 2015, a communication network to achieve the total telecom business unit comprehensive energy consumption decreased by 10% compared with the end of 2010.

FiberHome positive response to the call of the national energy conservation Ministry of Industry, continued to increase environmental protection equipment research and development efforts, through green innovation solutions and business models to vigorously promote the development of green communications. FiberHome full range of products in terms of energy conservation has excellent performance, including OTN series of energy saving products of the indicators are in a leading position in the communications industry. FiberHome OTN products from "green plan", "green technology", "green operations and maintenance" three aspects to implement save energy and low-carbon environmental protection requirements to green innovative products and solutions to help operators build sustainable development Green communications network.

"Green Plan"

"Green Plan" means the OTN consider energy-saving measures and programs in the planning stage, consider green energy-saving products in the architecture design, software design, power density, intelligent control. In the plan to take into account the problem of resource consumption unit index, selection and technical evolution of materials make full use of resources and so on. Achieve overall analysis of various factors, performance trade-offs, power consumption, evolution and other programming in the planning.

"Green Plan" of the specific implementation is divided into six areas.

First, a reasonable choice OTN electrical cross capacity: Considering the contradictions and large cross-slot bandwidth and the capacity of small particles between business and node traffic to adapt. Demand and slot backplane bandwidth design tradeoffs business diversity.

Second, environmentally friendly materials and efficient software design: recyclable biodegradable materials, and improve resource utilization through the design and optimization software.

Third, the intelligent interface control and energy saving chip: intelligent interface control reduce power consumption, the use of energy-saving chip to improve resource utilization.

Fourth, the green evolution: Planning existing OTN platform upgrade function to ensure that existing investments in the future can be fully utilized. PEOTN OTN is the future direction of development, PEOTN centralized ODUk / packet / VC cross optical cross. OTN and packet services that fuse efficiently, reducing stacking; centralized cross, reduce power consumption; reduce the number of core router interface, reducing capacity requirements. CAPEX savings throughout the network.

Fifth, to enhance integration, the overall decrease in energy consumption: the flames of 10G client-side and line-side interface unit 10 provides an interface for the largest, 2.5G following client-side interface provides 16 single-disc biggest port, electrical cross sub-frame provides a maximum service slots 54 slots, enhance product integration can effectively reduce energy consumption.

Sixth, 100G green design: 100G optical disc industry's highest level of integration forwards, only two slots, 100G transceiver one OTU power (soft-decision FEC) is less than 160W, 100G platform FONST 5000 maximum power consumption of 6500W.

"Green technology"

"Green technology" is through the use of energy-saving mode, efficient and reasonable software design, intelligent service interface control, real-time environmental monitoring, smart fan design, more technology to achieve green energy. Specifically divided into four areas.

First, using IEEE 802.3az-2010 standard: the use of low-power chips, reduce circuit losses, significantly lower power chips and systems to reduce by 50% the physical layer, 70% to 80% of system level power consumption.

Second, the use of on-chip SRAM Stand-by mode: SRAM chip area accounted for more than 90%, so that the free SRAM enters Stand-by mode, the dynamic power consumption is almost zero.

Third, the use of advanced production technology: using 45nm production process, about 40 percent lower than 90nm power consumption of conventional ways to reduce power consumption.

Fourth, the core chip laser control: turns off when idle laser data transmission side, thereby reducing the overall power consumption of the device.

"Green operation and maintenance."

"Green operation and maintenance" refers to green OTN product operation and maintenance savings for carriers to deploy part of the energy consumption. It is divided into six areas.

First, the product of high reliability system design, flexible and diverse network protection and recovery tools, thus reducing manpower and resources invested.

Second, unified network management OTN M2000 system. Intuitive graphical interface, fast and efficient mode of operation, improve reporting statistics, fine-end fault and performance management, to help the network operate efficiently.

Third, the software modular design, optimized database, the function can be configured to turn off redundant functions, operational cost savings, end to end multi-service access platform.

Fourth, a platform for a variety of access methods, to avoid duplication of network resource consumption caused.

Fifth, the rational design of efficient and safe OTN network. Dedicated by the flames OTN planning staff OTNP software, can automatically calculate line attenuation, the control dispersion tolerance, the wavelength rational allocation, a key to configure the optical device.

Sixth, a reasonable choice of cross particle design. Using ODU2 scheduling, each site is a business channel, ease of maintenance and management, to give a one-time site deployment 8 GE business and meet long-term business needs.

Gigalight launched the second-generation multi-mode parallel optical engine

Recently, Gigalight successfully completed real-time monitoring 4-12 road Tx optical power of the second-generation multi-mode parallel optical engine, and equipped with the newly developed Gigalight successful 40G QSFP+ SR4 GEN2 optical transceiver module. The second generation optical engine core objective research is to develop a micro-optical structure LENS, multi-channel parallel VCSEL optical power monitoring, and easy to bind at high speed module circuit board.

Gigalight generation 40G QSFP+ SR4 GEN2 optical modules with integrated optical devices coupled with a unique lens to achieve real-time monitoring of optical power TX transmit function that transmit TX optical power of effective monitoring, play a stabilizing role emitted optical power. Common market QSFP+ SR4 TX optical modules actually do not have real-time monitoring of the emitted light power, not only by the laser array chip VCSEL ARRAY vertical cavity surface emitting limiting characteristic, add the feedback optical device under existing QSFP+ package is also very difficult. Gigalight 40G QSFP+ SR4 GEN2 success of research and development, more stable the Gigalight leadership in optical engine technology.

Gigalight 40G QSFP+ SR4 GEN2
Gigalight 40G QSFP+ SR4 GEN2
The figure is Gigalight relevant parameters 40G QSFP-SR4 GEN2 equipped with second-generation light engine after implementation. 4-channel optical eye margin (MARGIN) were higher than 30%, the receiver sensitivity better than -13DBM, 4-way DDM optical power monitor properly.

40G QSFP-SR4 GEN2 eye:

40G QSFP-SR4 GEN2 eye

40G QSFP-SR4 GEN2 eye

40G QSFP-SR4 GEN2 sensitivity index

40G QSFP-SR4 GEN2 sensitivity index

40G QSFP-SR4 GEN2 DDM TX monitor

40G QSFP-SR4 GEN2 DDM TX monitor

High return loss receiving scheme to improve the transmission performance of the optical module 10G LTE

The rapid development of mobile Internet, the rapid application of intelligent terminals holdings of explosive growth, driven by substantial growth in global data traffic.

Up to now, 422 operators in 143 countries launched a commercial LTE network. Last year alone, there are 106 operators to launch commercial LTE services. Terminal, the TD industrial chain have become more sophisticated, the market began to face the ultimate force.

China Mobile LTE construction in the module is 6G and 10G of SFP+ optical module, the surge in market demand and mature industry chain light module products technology innovation, as well as the cost pressure from operators transfer to the optical module manufacturers through equipment manufacturers. About LTE 10G optical module receiver technology, currently the industry there are two solutions: high return loss program and receives regular reception program, differences between these two programs receiving device is mainly reflected in the module optical return loss design.

After receiving the conventional scheme, LC connector into the receiving device, the air between PIN dies its flat end and the gap within the device, and most of the light in the optical fiber transmission perpendicular to the flat face, when they occur, specular light will all return in the core, the reflectivity can usually return Rf=(nf-1)2/(nf+1)2 is calculated by, nf is the refractive index of the fiber material, take nf=1.47, too Rf=3.6%(-14.4dB), another study suggests that the fiber end after the grinding and polishing, will produce a thin layer at the fiber end face deterioration. Its refractive index of about 1.6, higher than the refractive index of the fiber core, this case, Rf =5.3%(-12.7dB), that is, return loss of -12.7dB, and lower standards -12dB 10G Ethernet is very close, almost No margin.

Compared with conventional receiving scheme, high return loss LC connector receiving scheme between PIN die and adds a miter ceramic pin, as shown in Figure 2. Pin angled end fiber mandrels not at right angles, although there is an air gap, but after launching inclined surface angle of the reflected light propagates in the optical fiber is smaller than the total reflection critical angle, therefore, from pins inclined surface reflected light , does not spread in the core, but all through the cladding dissipation occurs and eventually leak out to 8°oblique pin, for example, return loss measured according to statistics, generally better than -27dB. Therefore, in the optical return loss index, regular reception program receives far and high return loss program.

Figure 1 regular reception device Schematic diagram
Figure 2 high return loss Schematic receiving device of FIG.
Figure 3 pin flat end surface reflectance in
Figure 4 pin inclined surface reflectance in

Optical return loss is defined as the ratio of the reflected light power and the incident power, the worse the show return loss fiber link light reflecting stronger, and in the optical fiber transmission systems, connectors, fiber end faces, optical and detector surface will caused by Fresnel reflection. The light reflected back to the impact of the system include:

1) so that the optical signal transmission is weakened;

2) the incident signal interference;

3) reduce signal noise in a digital transmission system.

Since the reflected light will return after emission sources, the impact caused by the light source include:

1) cause the center wavelength of the emitted light fluctuations;

2) cause strong fluctuations in the light emission of the light source;

3) permanently damage the light.

Even FP light source, although the retroreflective little effect on the spectral characteristics, but retroreflected light into the light amplification cavity after the active region, to join the mainstream, resulting in light intensity fluctuations of light intensity fluctuations resulting in RIN, RIN is the transmitter and not related to the receiver noise will limit the maximum signal to noise ratio is possible to obtain the optical fiber link, thereby affecting receiver sensitivity. Moreover, a broadband noise RIN essence, it reflects the relative signal power, the impact of intensity fluctuation of the light source and the receiving end of the system electrical noise generated by the formula is as follows:

RIN =<ΔP>2/(P2*BW)

<ΔP> is the average noise power, P is the average optical power, BW is the bandwidth of the receiver and system link.

Thus, the system, the higher the rate, the more bandwidth link noise, the greater the noise power, the lower the signal to noise ratio, the higher the error rate. Therefore, optical modules for 10G LTE, to ensure the reliability and stability of the optical transmission system emission spectrum of the light source and power, it is necessary to receive a high return loss devices designed to minimize reflection link. Despite regular reception program module can use the transmitter optical isolator programs to protect the light source and the influence of the reflected return loss caused by the system still exists, while isolating the price than the high return loss program in the price of optical fiber pins much more expensive.

Despite facing increasingly fierce price competition and cost pressures, but has always been to uphold the quality first philosophy, in the development of the module Accelink Technology Co., Ltd. (ACCELINK) SZ002281's Wuhan Telecommunication Devices Co., Ltd. (WTD) and adhere to the production of high-performance principle, without compromising product performance for the price to reduce costs. But through continuous R & D investment to master the core technology, innovative technology and lean manufacturing, and other initiatives to design cost control programs, and technical innovation WTD's LTE 10G optical module receives high return loss programs, compared to the conventional reception scheme, the light return loss better indicators of the impact of emission sources is small so that the stability of the system is greatly improved.

WTD develop high-speed polarization multiplexing coherent detection optical module technology considerations

In order to achieve accurate, effective, and reliable coherent optical communication, WTD in the coherent optical communication technology to develop high-speed polarization multiplexing coherent detection optical module products mainly consider the following several technical points.

1. Using high-standard light source technology

Coherent optical fiber communication system for signal light and local oscillator light source is relatively high, it requires a narrow spectral lines, high frequency stability. Linewidth light source itself determines the system can achieve the lowest error rate, should be minimized, while the frequency of the semiconductor laser to change the operating temperature and injection current is very sensitive to the variation amount is generally in the tens of gigahertz per degree Celsius and the tens of gigahertz per mA, therefore, for the frequency stability, in addition to the injection current and temperature stability, we must also take other frequency stabilization measures to maintain a stable optical frequency.

2. To achieve a breakthrough in terms of access technology

Coherent detection receiver technology consists of two parts, one is the light receiver technology, the other is a variety of standard intermediate frequency after demodulation techniques.

Balanced receiver method: frequency shift keying (FSK) standard, since the semiconductor laser modulation process will inevitably with additional amplitude modulation noise, using a balanced approach reduces AM reception noise. The main idea of ​​balancing law when the optical signal from the optical fiber into the local oscillator light by polarization control to ensure that the polarization state of the signal to adapt the local oscillator and signal lights through the polarizing beam splitter into two paths, and receives two identical PIN photodetector, such that the output of the two photodetectors is equal amplitude and inverted envelope signal, then the two signals after synthesis, so that doubling the FM signal, the AM noise and spurious cancel each other The DC component also counteract, to eliminate the influence of noise amplitude modulation requirements.

Polarization control technology: coherent optical communication system receiver must request signal light and the LO light polarized with biased in order to achieve good mixing effect and improve reception quality. Signal light after the single-mode fiber for long distance transmission, the polarization is random fluctuation, in order to solve this problem, a lot of ways, such as using polarization maintaining fiber, polarization controller and polarization diversity reception and other methods. When the light transmission in the general fiber, phase and polarization plane will randomly change the polarization maintaining fiber it is through the selection process and material makes the light phase and polarization unchanged specialty optical fiber, but the fiber loss, the price is very expensive; polarization The controller is mainly the signal light and the LO light with bias, this method is relatively slow response speed, loop control requirements are relatively high; polarization diversity receiver is the use of signal light and the LO light After mixing, the polarization The mixed light beam components into two mutually perpendicular polarization components, the LO light in two perpendicular polarization components by the polarization controller, so that the two components of equal power, so that when the signal light of random polarization fluctuations may cause one of the intermediate frequency signal branch decline, but another branch of the IF signal still exists, so the demodulated signal of the system and the resulting polarization of the signal light is almost independent of the technical response faster, more practical, but to achieve more complex.

3. The use of external optical modulation technology

Because when a parameter of the semiconductor laser direct modulation of the optical carrier, always incidental to other parasitic oscillation parameters, such as amplitude shift keying (ASK) modulation directly associated with the phase change, and the modulation depth will be limited. In addition, the frequency characteristics will encounter uneven and relaxation oscillation problems. Thus, in the coherent optical communication system, in addition to direct injection current can FSK frequency modulation, the other is the use of external light modulation.

4. The rational use of non-linear crosstalk control technology

Since the coherent optical communication, often using DWDM technology. Thus, the optical fiber nonlinear effects may make a coherent optical communication channel signal strength and phase affected by other channel signals to form non-linear crosstalk.

Coherent optical communication technology features and benefits

Coherent optical communication full use of coherent communication has the mixer gain, excellent channel selectivity and adjustable features. Compared with IM/DD system, coherent optical communication system has the following unique advantages:

1. High sensitivity, long distance relay

Coherent optical communications is a major advantage of enabling coherent detection, thereby improving the sensitivity of the receiver. In the coherent optical communication system, the coherent mixing light output current size of the signal light power and the local oscillator optical power proportional to the product. Under the same conditions, the coherent receiver to improve receiver sensitivity than the average of about 18dB, can achieve close to the shot noise limit performance, and therefore increase the unrepeated transmission distance of optical signals.

2. selectivity, large communication capacity

Another major advantage of coherent optical communication is that it can improve the selectivity of the receiver. In direct detection, the reception band is wider, to suppress interference noise, usually takes place before the detector narrowband filter, but the band is still very wide. Coherent heterodyne detection, the probe is a signal light and LO light of the mixed light, so only in the frequency band noise in the system before they can enter, while others are relatively narrow bandwidth microwave noise IF amplifier filtered out. Visible, heterodyne detection has good filtering properties, which will play a major role in the coherent optical communication applications. Furthermore, since the coherent detection excellent wavelength selectivity, coherent receiver can make the frequency spacing WDM system greatly reduced, that is, dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM), to replace the traditional light multiplexing of large frequency interval, having a wave division multiplexing potential advantages to achieve higher transfer rates.

3. You can use the equalization electronics to compensate for fiber dispersion effect of light pulses

If heterodyne detection of coherent optical communication transmission function of the IF filter transfer function coincided with the opposite optical fiber, optical fiber can reduce the influence of the dispersion of the system.

SPTN build for TD-LTE intelligent bearer network

4G era a variety of video, social networking and other diverse mobile services to the people's work and lives of great convenience, but also on the carrier's mobile bearer network brings higher requirements.

PTN is the traditional transmission technology and data fusion technology, located in the packet mobile carrier, has its unique design and value. In 2007, Huawei PTN first released the industry's first product, PTN formal stage of history. 2008-2009, China Mobile after the pilot scale in the domestic provinces, determine PTN as a new generation packet-based mobile backhaul solutions. With each PTN manufacturers continue to follow up and continue to invest, PTN industrial chain has entered a stage of rapid maturation. Up to now, more than hundreds of thousands of sets of PTN equipment has been widely deployed around the world, PTN has become one of the leading mobile carrier technology.

First, the existing PTN network Challenges:

With the continued development and facing the upcoming LTE, LTE-A and set-off Line service bearer, existing PTN network is also facing a lot of problems and challenges, such as:

The introduction of the core layer PTN 40GE, 100GE, access layer PTN 10GE and other large bandwidth and greater network scale equipment capability to bring great pressure; for the emergence of LTE and future set-off line network and other new business, the need to build a Zhang flexible automation bearer network to cope with the rising demand for EPC Pool, cloud services and so; LTE services across the Line services to market customer demand and moving fast opening, centralized network architecture to simplify the entire network operation and maintenance, more Manufacturer coordinated control between devices, would require PTN network with flexible and scalable architecture.

The main driving force for the development of the network from the customer's existing network traffic demands. PTN concepts and technologies need to keep going forward, to solve problems in the existing network infrastructure to meet the development needs of the future integrated LTE bearer network to help operators and enterprises to build a better bearer network.

Two, SPTN sources and inherited from the existing network PTN, it is the constant improvement of the existing network PTN

With accumulated technology in the field for many years and PTN mobile network packet deep understanding of the trend, Huawei in the 2013 China International Exhibition officially released SPTN solutions build for LTE / LTE-A and the new VIP private line service Smart PTN bearer network.

SPTN solutions from equipment, services, network three dimensions, to LTE and LTE-A carrier network to give a new definition. To accommodate future LTE rapid development of new applications emerging, PTN bearer network need to be more flexible capabilities and open architecture. In the device dimensions, we must have large capacity and superior specifications; in business dimensions, must support the intelligent service perception, visual service monitoring, intelligent business management business is fine; the network dimension, must provide on-demand adjustment, open innovation, effective coordination of the "intelligent network" capability, and for the evolution of SDN.

SPTN solutions proposed, not the existing network PTN of a disruptive change, but from the existing network, the existing network PTN continuous improvement and innovation, is an evolution of the direction of the PTN. PTN network now can grasp the rhythm, gradually evolve to SPTN.

PTN bearer network equipment capacity (extensive coverage 10GE access layer, the convergence of the core layer to 40GE, 100GE smooth upgrade large bandwidth, powerful networking capabilities of core equipment, etc.), business-oriented intelligent business management system, for the future The wide open PTN network architecture, can gradually improved based on the deepening of LTE construction. LTE business, set-off line and other kinds of new services and joint development of PTN bearer network, continue to promote PTN bearer network to SPTN rhythm, there is an evolutionary plan.

SDN evolution in the most critical aspect, PTN SPTN smooth evolution to also have a sound operability. For the mass of the existing network operators PTN equipment inventory, SPTN groundbreaking solutions proposed centralized network control and controller are two routes. Inventory equipment through the network to achieve centralized control SDN evolution; for new equipment, the use of the new controller using a standard interface for centralized control. On both, through cooperative is to collaborate, thus complete solution SDN evolution PTN entire network.

Three, SPTN is the next generation PTN, PTN network development direction

Huawei SPTN solutions focus "Super, Smart, Soft" core ideology, from equipment, services, network three dimensions, to LTE integrated bearer network gives new definition. SPTN solution matches the capacity of the equipment, operation and maintenance business and LTE era bearer network needs and other aspects of future network evolution, showing the direction and trend of the future development of PTN network. SPTN provide fast service to the operator deployment, LTE intelligent bearer network intelligent business management, centralized management simplifies maintenance and become the future direction of PTN network.

Huawei's innovative solutions SPTN, committed to build a flexible and open Smart LTE bearer network, Huawei reflects the profound technology accumulation in the PTN field and continuous innovation. SPTN based solutions, Huawei released the industry's first pilot product based SDN PTN 7900, to meet the new demands for LTE / LTE-A of PTN bearer network.

High-density fiber management faces two major challenges to protect and preserve

According to the survey report shows that the number of data center fiber port applications worldwide over copper ports, the user is faced with a growing number of fiber ports in the cabinet and more, increasing density of the status quo. High-density fiber optic management of large data era is facing two major challenges.
With the explosion of data traffic, the number of people on the data transmission and capacity have higher requirements, the construction of large-scale data centers more and more, 10G transmission also has been used. It is understood that: implementation of 10G transmission including 10G fiber and 10G copper types. Twisted pair, for example, the current mainstream Cat6A and Cat7 cables to support Gigabit transmission as far as 100 meters. Per port power consumption of about 10W, delay time is about 4 microseconds.
The 10GBase-SR short-wavelength fiber-optic module commonly employed by OM3 laser optimized multimode fiber as far as 300 meters can support Gigabit transmission, device power consumption per port about 3W, the delay time of less than 1 microsecond. So comparison, the fiber optic network has low latency, long-distance, low power consumption advantages.
First, the physical protection of optical fiber and cable. Excessive bending loss is the main reason for the extra light signals in optical fibers, optical fiber bending loss visible due to become great curved loss, thus protecting the bend radius is an important factor to ensure fiber performance. General industry requirements for fiber bend radius during installation is at least 20 times the diameter of the cable, if you want to maintain a fixed state at least 10 times, most of the time when the excess coiled fiber jumper bend radius not meet the requirements.
Fiber optic cables, particularly fiber optic patch cord is fragile, you need to pay attention to physical protection, with particular attention to the transition part of the fiber - pigtail splice and jumper root protection, high-density fiber management system should have special protection and welding node pigtail redundant storage capabilities.
Second, to maintain the data center. Life cycle data center cabling systems usually about 5-10 years, in this time period cabling system will experience a lot of maintenance work, including additions and changes. If the wiring system when completed, jumpers clean and beautiful, but after becoming messy, it is the lack of planning for cable routing and design, lack of alignment channel, jumpers nowhere to go only disorderly accumulation, and therefore cause a lot issues, such as bend radius are not protected, can not find the jumper on the end position can waste a lot of time to find, resulting in waste of resources unused port.
Third, high-density fiber optic cabling system to be considerate. A well-designed, high-density fiber optic cabling system to maximize the reduction of system maintenance time and improve reliability, so that the wiring system to provide maximum available capacity throughout the life cycle.
To do this, we first want to provide optimized design of the cable routing channels, channel optimization design should include jumper bend radius protection, cable has enough capacity to be easy to add and remove. In addition the size of the high-density fiber optic connector fiber management system compact and tightly packed on one fiber port swap operation can not affect the adjacent fiber port.

Optical networks to introduce a driving force of SDN

Optical networking introduction of software-defined network (SDN) technology, the main purpose is to control and convey by decoupling centralized control strategy to simplify the existing complex and proprietary optical network control and management protocol, through an open network and application layer interface, providing network programmable capability to meet future data center internetworking, network virtualization, flexible and efficient service provision, networks and business innovation development needs.

Currently, optical networks SDN trend is obvious, the main driving forces include the following aspects:

1. Cloud Data Center Interconnect

With the development of cloud computing, data center interconnect services (data center backup, virtual machine migration) for backbone and metro optical networks made large bandwidth, data center interconnect to provide dynamic and flexible business needs, the current domestic carrier optical network The total bandwidth has reached several Tb/s level. Optical network to provide data center interconnect generally used in accordance with the maximum peak configure static bandwidth mode, the bandwidth requirements of data centers is not always at the peak of the state, this mode causes the user to rent expensive and wasteful operator's network resources. The dynamic nature of the Internet data center also includes a change of access points required for flexible scheduling and optical network dynamically adjust the connection between the data center.

2. Manufacturers across the network centralized maintenance management and scheduling

The number of optical network equipment and many manufacturers, especially the metro transport network and access network sites have massive, centralized network management and maintenance to bring great challenges. Meanwhile, the optical network physical layer technology is complex, the manufacturers of network control and management protocols varying degrees of private information across manufacturers of equipment for centralized management and scheduling difficult to achieve, resulting in long service provisioning time, low efficiency, often require a number of service provisioning days or even weeks. SDN by forwarding and control the separation and network virtualization technology, shielding the details of the forwarding plane from different manufacturers, provides a standard interface controller interconnection, to address multi-vendor optical networking equipment Centralized management and interoperability, simplify maintenance provides a new opportunity for network operation.

3. Heterogeneous Network Intelligence interoperability and cooperative scheduling

With the rapid growth of broadband network flow, expansion costs and operating profit growth slowdown is formed between the scissors, the most important issue facing operators. SDN technology can achieve optical network and IP network resources optimization and synergy between the control, effectively reducing the capacity requirements of the router, to solve the bottleneck of network capacity, reduce the overall cost of the network hosts. Meanwhile, co-SDN controller, you can achieve intelligent interoperability and resource access, metro, backbone network and other heterogeneous network of joint scheduling, improve traffic management capabilities to provide a more intelligent plumbing services, for operators and users important.

4. Network virtualization and open business applications

Virtualized network resources can better play the advantages of optical networking infrastructure resources, enabling customers to different services based on application requirements, quickly and efficiently access and control network resources in ensuring the quality of service provided, and makes use of network resources optimized. Independent control on the one hand is open to the operator's own business, with a physical network, for government and enterprise customers, residential customers, backhaul network can have logic: network virtualization technology, optical networks can provide service based on both open system, namely, the achievement logical fragmentation of the network; the other is open to customers, provide on-demand adjustment, open innovation, effective coordination "soft network" capability.

Research and Development of parallel optical modules and AOC areas

Parallel optical module QSFP+ PSM and AOC products are mainly based on multi-mode fiber optical interconnection technology, it has the advantage of high-bandwidth, low loss, no crosstalk and electromagnetic compatibility and matching problems, and has been gradually replaced copper-based electrical interconnect products and applications in between cabinets, high-speed interconnect plate frame and connect the distance up to 300 meters in OM3 fiber. Meanwhile, in order to apply to more long-distance transmission solutions, PSM parallel optical modules have emerged, mainly used in single-mode fiber transmission FP laser 2KM, DFB 10KM transmission applications, it is more difficult than having a multimode interconnect technology.

First, the parallel multi-mode fiber coupling technology accumulation and breakthrough

Parallel optical module interconnect technology the optical coupler is a big problem, compared to the popular Plastic lens solution Gigalight adopted a more simple and efficient and reliable fiber coupling technology. This technology uses a near 45 degree angle (Fig.1) of the total reflection face VCSEL emitting reflected light path is formed products needed, but such a simple application of the principle, Gigalight in actual production to be the exact product The theoretical calculations and rigorous experimental verification. For the reflection angle of choice, we passed to the lasing VCSEL optical properties (Figure 2), the use of optical simulation software analysis (Figure 3), and the principle of total reflection of the light incident angle VCSEL determine our optimal angle of reflection at the interface approaches a value of 45°at the same time through a special fiber surface material processing (Figure 4), the optical fiber coupling efficiency from the initial design (43% to 47%) raised to (75% -80%).

Second, parallel single-mode fiber coupling product realization

To achieve long distance transmission must use single-mode optical fiber dispersion loss, but the single-mode optical fiber and semiconductor to achieve high coupling efficiency of the light to be emitted from a semiconductor laser field shaping incident light field and the fiber intrinsic optical field Possible matches maximized. We can use the optical coupling lens (i.e., added between the lens and the optical fiber laser, FIG.5) and an optical fiber directly coupled (i.e., fiber laser source and direct coupling, FIG.6) in two ways. But the optical lens coupling, due to the coupling system is separate from the optical elements of the semiconductor laser, a lens, coaxial quasi-linear optical fiber between the three requirements are very high. To ensure coaxial collimation requirements, often need to make a special surface shape, but also an array of lenses, which makes the high cost, and space requirements of the larger product, is not conducive to miniaturization of the package. Our technical accumulation process based on the parallel multi-mode optical module products, the use of optical fiber direct coupling to achieve a parallel single-mode product development and production. In this process, we have experienced flat end of the fiber coupling and tapered fiber coupling. The flat end of the fiber coupler production process is simple, easy to implement, but because of the light emitting area of ​​the light source and single-mode fiber core diameter area and a light source divergence angle and fiber numerical matching relation severe mismatch, resulting in low coupling efficiency, light reflection is likely to cause large optical eye diagram Scatter affect the transmission quality. Therefore, we used a fiber-optic splice connection arcing ball end face of the optical fiber obtained (Figure 7) coupling. Using ball coupling end face, not only help to improve fiber coupling efficiency, and help to change the reflected light is reflected path, help block the light path of debugging. Figures 8 and 9 for the optical eye diagram comparison level end of the fiber end face of the optical fiber coupling and coupling ball.

Third, COB (CHIP ON BOARD) technology to improve the accuracy

Existing programs for parallel optical modules are based on VCSEL array and the fiber array coupling scheme, using CHIP ON BOARD process to achieve cost-efficient production requirements. In this process, the chip placement accuracy of a direct impact on the efficiency of light coupling. We passed comparison of the data analysis, placement accuracy deviation light on the impact of the loss (Figure 10, Figure 11). From the figure we understand, multimode coupling can guarantee the accuracy of ±5um coupling efficiency. According to the study, we used a high-precision chip technology, the guarantee of quality products coupled.

In order to ensure placement accuracy and high efficiency of production, we have introduced automated precision placement equipment (Fig.12), to ensure accuracy within ±3um and automatic Wire BOND equipment.

Fourth, the necessary thermal design to ensure good use of parallel optical modules

As we all know, parallel optical module is highly integrated device products, increase the number of internal multi-channel integration, so that power and I/O pins greatly increased. For example, in QSFP- PSM module, four drive IC's power consumption accounts for more than nearly 50% of the entire module of the heat. QSFP in a small space, heat is a big problem. If the long-term cooling, can cause aging of the internal components and shorten life. And more directly reflect the laser power will increase as the temperature changes, the characteristics of the laser (Figure 13) shows: Ith becomes larger, in order to get sufficient transmission power, the module will increase the bias current so that the overall power consumption of the module directly increase, creating a vicious cycle, which is very unfavorable for the module. Therefore, in the product development cycle, we will be concerned about thermal design of the product. Layout and thermal path between the chips inside the module attention is good. In product design has been rigorous thermal design (Fig.14), and then to revise and improve the cooling effect (Fig.15) by experimental thermal testing.

Advantages of fiber access

1. capacity: fiber optic frequency, higher than the cable 8-9 orders of magnitude, so the development of large capacity.

2. attenuation: optical fiber attenuation per kilometer than the capacity of the largest telecommunications coax more than an order of magnitude lower.

3. Small size, light weight, is also conducive to construction and transportation.

4. Anti-interference good performance: the optical fiber from strong electricity, electrical signals and lightning interference. Anti-electromagnetic pulse is also very strong, good privacy.

5. saving non-ferrous metals: general communication cable to consume large amounts of copper, lead, or aluminum and other nonferrous metals. Optical fiber itself is non-metallic, the development of optical communications will save a lot of non-ferrous metals.

6. Expansion convenient: a bandwidth of 2Mbps standard fiber lines are easy to upgrade to 4M, 10M, 20M and 100M; therebetween without replacing any equipment.

Next-generation optical network architecture aimed at five directions

In the high-speed, large bandwidth demand driven by the telecommunications network has been developing rapidly, but the energy issues have been aroused widespread concern operators, telecommunications equipment manufacturers, service providers have forecast, if there are 1000 1.2P router, its energy consumption will reach 1.5 Gigabit power, the equivalent of a nuclear power plant. To this end the EU set up a green photoelectric networking groups dedicated to energy-saving light device research. Chinese Academy of Engineering Wu Hequan in 2010 China Internet Conference opening ceremony, mentioned: "Broadband Internet is the flow under the extraordinary development of the mobile Internet will increase the energy consumption of the network, the need in terms of system technology development efficient, energy-saving Internet. "As an important part of the telecommunications network, optical network plays an important role in the green, energy saving.

Construction of low-carbon green network imminent

With the progress of society and the economy continues to develop, contradiction between energy consumption and environmental protection become more prominent. On the one hand, the importance of the environment for sustainable human development, has been unprecedented attention; to improve the environment, reduce pollution, has become the urgent voice of the times. On the other hand, energy depletion looming, energy consumption doubled every year, the total energy consumption of excessive energy consumption and low efficiency is a major bottleneck to limit human development. Solve the energy problem, the protection of the living environment, have become formidable challenges to human development.

The rapid development of human society as a symbol of industry, communications industry to bear the brunt of the energy challenge. With the gradual improvement of people's communication needs, a rapid increase in ICT network coverage, ICT energy consumption is also rapid growth, but increasing consumption of network equipment and components. Data show that, ICT energy consumption in 2009 accounted for 8% of total world energy consumption. As an important part of the ICT infrastructure, energy-saving measures telecommunications networks also put on the agenda.

telecommunications network
Figure 1 telecommunications network

Telecommunications network structure shown in Figure 1, from the three components of the telecommunications network to start, namely core, metro and access networks, optical networks currently existing summary representation of energy-saving programs.

Promoting multi-core network

The core network is the main parts of the network with a wide coverage, long distance transmission, data volume, transfer rate is high. Backbone network energy consumption of the total energy consumption of about 12% is expected in 2020 will reach 20%.

First, the core network traffic in different sizes at different times of day. When the traffic load is low, the nodes and links suspended or the presence of a low utilization rate, resulting in a waste of energy. How to achieve maximum energy efficiency, namely, how to turn off as many free nodes and links, is key. This problem is NP-hard problem, usually MILP (Mixed Integer Linear Program) to resolve, but with the increase of network nodes, MILP calculation increases dramatically, and therefore only suitable for small networks MILP.

For large networks, heuristic algorithm can be used to complete the routing and wavelength assignment, network effective components is minimized. Now commonly use local search, multiple search and global search space to deal with NP-hard problems. Local search algorithm is a generic term for a class of approximation algorithms, which from an initial solution, every step to find a better solution in the current field, the objective function gradually optimized until no further improvement so far; multi-space search algorithm search space smoothing techniques to reduce the number of local minima; global search algorithm, it refers to the global search or global optimization using SAT question a special transformation model discrete Boolean space into a "continuous amount of space on the real SAT question "The global optimization method known steepest descent method, Newton method, quasi-Newton method, cutting plane method, ellipsoid method, homotopy method, Boolean difference method.

Second, the core network IP routing is the main energy-consuming equipment, its energy consumption accounts for about 90% of the total net energy consumption, how to reduce energy consumption is an important aspect of the core network routing saving to be considered.

Core routing line cards and chassis energy can not be ignored, line cards and chassis configurations different result in different power consumption. Generally the higher the level of the chassis is filled, saving more obvious, that is, high fill rate is less than the low filling factor chassis Chassis energy consumption per bit.

Third, the core network presents multi-layer network structure, so it should take into account the comprehensive energy saving multi-layer networks. Since most energy exchange and transmission equipment to some extent, depending on the traffic load, thus relates to multilayer traffic grooming to achieve network optimization business, so as to reduce the amount of use of the wavelength and ADM. Currently focused on traffic grooming WDM ring network under static business plan by establishing universal traffic grooming model, using heuristic algorithm to solve the traffic grooming to achieve network optimization. In addition, the transmission route of IP packet size affect its energy consumption there. When that is constant bit-service transmission, IP packets larger energy is smaller.

Fourth, the traditional best path selected on the basis of the minimum number of hops, but the minimum number of nodes hop path is the excessive use of the possibility of large, resulting in net energy increase and affect the network lifetime. Therefore, it is proposed energy-aware routing, it will route the remaining energy is selected as the best path indicators, thereby reducing the network energy consumption and prolong the network lifetime. Energy-aware routing in two designs: one is the power efficiency of the design, namely the integration of routing ASICs / FPGAs and propose a scalable central structure, making routing energy consumption reduced by 50%. Another power-saving design, namely to reduce the extra energy, including static and dynamic performance control performance of the control of both. Static performance control can achieve 10% to 20% energy saving, Dynamic Performance Control can be changed dynamically according to the arrival traffic routing performance, it is the next generation routing development.

MAN local conditions

MAN boundary between LAN and WAN, which covers the geographic scope of the city, connecting the user's device and service aggregation and core network directly connected. MAN used different network technologies are also different. In the main technology MAN has SONET, WDM ring, Ethernet. Metro WDM ring structure which is widely applied.

Consider three kinds of structure for unidirectional WDM ring network: FG (First-Generaion) optical network, SH (single-hop) networks, MH (multi-hop) networks. In FG optical network, each node inflow and outflow of business is electrical processing, including relay service; in SH network, when the node is the source node or the destination node only when the electrical processing; MH network between both of Room. When unidirectional WDM ring network with uniform service, the capacity and the connection rate approaching wavelength, MH network energy consumption is lower than FG. When the low connection rate, MH network better than SH network, because the network service multiplex MH more flexible terms.

Research priorities Ethernet energy savings, the main problem is to reduce the energy consumption of the Ethernet interface. IEEE 802.3az work of the Working Group, in order to reduce the energy consumption of Ethernet, Ethernet Working Group for efficient electronic interfaces including 1000BASE-T and 10GBASE-T, standardized process. The main idea of ​​this aspect of the study is: when the load is small, by reducing or even shut down the port speed port to reduce energy consumption. Research on the Ethernet energy issues will be further cut operating costs Ethernet, making Ethernet gradually become a green technology.

Access Network two-pronged approach

long-reach PON Chart
Figure 2 long-reach PON Chart

As a network infrastructure connection between the user terminal equipment and some service network nodes, the access network is the last one kilometer telecommunications network facilities, consisting of most of the telecommunications network. Modern access networks are characterized by integrated service access, particularly integrated access multimedia services and IP services. Studies have shown that the presence of a large number of active nodes, the access network consumes 70 percent of the energy of the whole network. Therefore, to reduce the energy consumption of the access network can significantly reduce the energy consumption of the whole network.

The current access network technologies there are two types of wired access and wireless access. Wired access technologies include xDSL, CM, FTTx and other wireless access technologies, including Wi-Fi, WiMAX and cellular data services (such as LTE, 2G, 3G, etc.).

Cable Access introduce FTTx currently widely used as the main technique of PON FTTx energy mainly from improvements in integrated circuit technology, energy-saving chip design, equipment improvement aspects to be considered. New long-distance network passive optical network LR-PON (Long-reach Passive Optical Network) proposed, shown in Figure 2, the transmission distance of the conventional PON extends from 20km to 100km, for a large number of access / metropolitan area provide broadband access customers, it is a promising future access network solution. Because between the central office and the customer using passive devices to achieve long distance transmission, so that the transmission energy consumption greatly reduced; and patients with multiple optical line terminal and the central office, simplifying the network and reducing equipment interfaces and network elements to achieve device energy saving.

Wireless access to cellular data services, for example, in a cellular data service, since the ad hoc network nodes to limit the source power and transmission power, so usually a perception cellular-based routing protocol, to achieve energy-aware and load balancing.

Imagine the future of energy-efficient network

green future optical network architecture
Figure 3 green future optical network architecture

As shown in Figure 3 green future optical network architecture, it should have five characteristics.

First, the entire network to all-optical networks, signal switching, routing, transport and recovery all functions in the form of light, not only broke through the bottleneck of electrical transmission rate, but without optical / electrical, electrical / optical conversion device, saving energy consumption.

Second, the use of dynamic energy-aware routing, dynamic routing performance vary depending on the volume of business, namely business volume adjustment transmitter power and selected according to the network nodes and links, the best path based on the residual energy, thereby reducing some of the network nodes excessive use, the data flow evenly distributed network nodes.

Third, take dynamic traffic grooming, without changing the number of wavelengths and ADM and ADM distributed by dynamically changing each wavelength carrying business, regulate distribution business in wavelengths, flexible achieve wavelength conversion, reached with the least ADM quantity to support dynamically changing business.

Fourth, according to the traffic volume of nodes and links, for unused and under-node and link thresholds into hibernation, the high utilization node set a lower threshold, low utilization node set a higher threshold, the business reach Threshold is open nodes below the threshold, select another link, the purpose of a dynamic and efficient use of nodes and links.

Fifth, the use of long-distance access network instead of the traditional metro and access networks, the optical line terminal to the local exchange of 90km feeder sections and the local exchange to the ONU under 10km transmission line are made of passive components, reducing the traditional program energy active devices. Since the burst-mode upstream information, so there are a lot of idle time ONU can design business trigger mechanism, that information transmission was started OUN, no information then goes into sleep mode, thereby reducing the idle time ONU power consumption.

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