Cloud computing market share will reach $ 127.5 billion

Cloud Computing By 2018, 62% of CRM software is cloud-based, to consolidate its market position.

From Byron Deeter of State of the Cloud Report 2015 is displayed in cloud-based applications is still in its early stages. Many studies have also confirmed their results, that the cloud computing market is still at a preliminary stage. Here we look at the report from Byron Deeter
the report from Byron Deeter

Cloud computing market is growing at 22.8% compound annual growth rate, and is expected in 2018 will reach $ 127.5 billion, while the figure in the end of 2014 is $ 56.6 billion, the largest of which is spent on a private cloud (26 billion).

SaaS spending to maintain this steady rate of growth. 30% of expected 2018 applications will be based SaaS applications. SaaS applications currently CAGR from 2013-2018 years will reach 17.6%. The local software development plan places the average annual rate of 2.8% per year lower.

In this prediction in 2018 that the 62% of CRM software based on cloud computing. From 2013-2018, it is expected to cloud-based CRM will grow an average annual rate of 19.6%. Saleforce still in the forecast will become the industry leader.The figure is estimated by BVP cloud index market three to five years, can be seen in the BVP Cloud Index forecast cloud market in 2020 will reach $ 500 billion in market capitalization. BVP transport index in 2010 to 2014 has reached 64 percent compound annual growth rate. The following diagram provides an overview of various possible development programs. Bessemer considered middle blue with 25% annual growth forecast is the most that can be achieved.
BVP cloud index market

Bessemer proposes six key indicators in this study to define the value of the business value of cloud computing change over time. The six indicators, including annual recurring revenue (ARR),% ARR growth, retention or upsell, customer acquisition (CAC) return,% gross margin and combustion rate / free cash flow (FCF). ARR and ARR growth which is the most important indicator. Bessemer also found a strong up-sell strategies that can offset the negative impact of churn, and quantified in this study.
six key cloud valuation metrics

In the year 2015 the market value of the cloud vertically focused business reached $ 25.2 billion. Enterprise deep vertical markets and the ability to rapidly deliver new applications can be faster for enterprises to win more new customers in, and this will lead to an increase in vertical market reputation eventually lead to higher market valuations.
industry cloud on the rise

The impact of growth and application development for mobile end cloud computing market is growing, and enterprise mobility compared to individual users has more potential power. 80 percent of workers did not work at the desk and the current use of the Internet is from the majority of mobile devices. Global smart phone penetration rate is now 73%. From the findings of the report outlined the following two pages provide liquidity aspect of Bessemer.
mobile is a game changer for the enterprise

OXC role

OXC is a fiber optic network node device, via optical signal cross-connect, the flexibility to effectively manage optical fiber transmission network, is the reliable network protection / restoration as well as an important means of automatic wiring and monitoring. OXC mainly by the optical cross-connect matrix, an input interface, an output interface, management control unit and other modules. Input and output interfaces directly connected to the fiber optic link were to be adapted for input and output signals, amplified. Management control unit by programming the optical cross-connect matrix, input and output interface module for monitoring and control, optical cross-connect OXC matrix core, which requires non-blocking, low latency, high speed and high reliability, and to have a one-way, two-way and broadcast in the form of function. OXC also free, time, and wavelength-division 3 types.

What is OXC?

OXCOXC (optical cross-connect) is a both multiplexing, wiring, protection / restoration, monitoring, and versatile OTN network transmission equipment, OADM OXC function can be viewed as a simplified structure.

OXC concept

For general transport network, OXC is not a necessary network elements (such as network topologies with a ring or chain, and its protection and restoration programs are also based at the ring), its necessity and importance depending on network scale, planners protection / recovery strategy and network reliability requirements and other factors. However, the entire transport network, the network must be flexible in order to provide configuration capabilities and a smaller cost of redundancy (including lines and equipment) have the necessary protection / recovery, you must configure OXC devices in the network, and once in the network OXC equipment is adopted, it must be at the center position in the network, it has become the core of the network elements. OXC network basic purpose is to conduct automated traffic grooming, the focus in the network.

The main function of OXC

1. To provide wavelength-based semi-permanent cross-connection function;br /> 2. wavelength channel can be configured to optimize network fiber resources;
3. When the network fails, providing rapid reconfiguration of the network;
4. optimize network traffic based on the change;
5. Try to allow operators are free to use a variety of signal formats (ie try to keep clear of the network).

Optical amplifier

Optical amplifiers are based on stimulated emission or stimulated scattering of incident light signal amplification principle to achieve a device. Optical amplifier in the structure is a smaller no feedback or feedback laser. Any optical media, when using the pump (electrical or optical) method, to be able to produce optical gain when the population inversion distribution that achieve optical amplification.
Optical amplifier

Current technology is relatively mature optical amplifier has an erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), optical fiber Raman amplifier (FRA) and a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA).

Infineon RPR chip solution

Infineon of FreaTM PoS Framer / RPR MAC IC is the industry's first draft protocol IEEE 802.17 RPR (Resilient Packet Ring) version 2.1-compliant 10G RPR chip, which is the Infineon existing optical networking solutions the latest addition.

Infineon said the product integrates the previous IC requires a minimum of four to complete the function, with a high degree of integration, thus greatly reducing the cost of user equipment, power consumption, size, and complexity of the software and hardware design.

RPR technology support high-speed optical network system Ethernet communication, the launch of the Infineon chip can complete PoS (Packet-over-SONET) into frame unit, RPR MAC (Media Access Control) and XAUI SerDes (serializer / deserializer string) function, which are necessary for the deployment of RPR in the metro and wide area networks. At the same time, the chip built-in 1MB of memory, support for 16-bit 800MHz SPI-4.2 and 4 3.125GHz XAUI interface, so when configuring RPR, no need for external SerDes products can connect two chips together.

What is the difference between GPON and EPON?

Currently, EPON and GPON are two major PON standards, one of which is the ITU / FSAN established Gigabit PON (GPON) standard, and the other is by the IEEE 802.3ah working group to develop the Ethernet PON (EPON) standard. ITU-T GPON is original to 155Mbit/s ATM technology-based APON (ATM PON) standard (APON) later renamed BPON (Broadband PON) development to the (G984.1, G984.2, G984.3). One thousand Katherine EPON known as GEPON. EPON and GPON are two standards, rather than EPON can be upgraded to GPON.



EPON to provide fixed-line and down 1.25Gbps, using 8b / 10b line coding, the actual rate of 1Gbps GPON supports multiple speed grades, can support asymmetric uplink and downlink rate, downstream 2.5Gbps or 1.25Gbps, 1.25Gbps upstream or 622 Mbps, the actual It needs to decide down the line speed, select the corresponding optical modules, optical devices to improve the rate of price ratio.

Split ratio

Tap the number of ONU (clients) than that is a port OLT (central office) with EPON standard defines the split ratio of 1:32. GPON standard defines the following types of 1:32 split ratio; one sixty-four; 1: 128 in fact, technically EPON system can do higher split ratios, such as 1: 64, 1: 128, EPON control protocol It can support more ONU. Split ratio is mainly confine light module performance by and large split ratio will result in a substantial increase in the cost of the optical module; in addition, PON insertion loss of 15~18dB, large branching ratio will reduce the transmission distance; too many users share Bandwidth is also a big shunt expense ratio.

The maximum transmission distance

GPON system can support a maximum physical distance, when the optical branching ratio is 1:16, it should support the maximum physical distance of 20km; when the optical branching ratio is 1:32, it should support the maximum physical distance of 10km.

EPON and GPON same.

QOS (Quality of Service)

EPON Ethernet header in the MAC layer adds 64 bytes of MPCP (multipoint control protocol), MPCP via messages, state machines and timers to control access to P2MP multipoint topology, dynamic bandwidth allocation DBA. Contents covered include ONU sends MPCP allocated slot, ONU automatic discovery and added to the congestion level of this report in order to dynamically allocate bandwidth. MPCP provides basic support for P2MP topologies, but the agreement was not on the priority business of the sorting process, all the business of competing random bandwidth.

GPON will have a more comprehensive DBA, with excellent QoS service capabilities. GPON service bandwidth allocation will be divided into four types, from high to low priority is fixed bandwidth (Fixed), guaranteed bandwidth (Assured), non-guaranteed bandwidth (Non-Assured) and best effort bandwidths (BestEffort). DBA and define the business container (traffic container, T-CONT) as the upstream traffic scheduling unit, each T-CONT by the Alloc-ID logo. Each T-CONT may contain one or more GEM Port-ID. T-CONT is divided into five kinds of business types, different types of T-CONT have different bandwidth allocation to meet the different traffic delay, jitter, Different QoS packet loss ratio requirements. Characteristics of T-CONT Type 1 is fixed bandwidth fixed timeslots fixed bandwidth (Fixed) allocation for delay-sensitive services such as voice services; characteristics of type 2 slot is a fixed bandwidth but uncertain, the corresponding guaranteed bandwidth (Assured) allocated for jitter less demanding fixed-bandwidth services such as video on demand service; type 3 is characterized by minimum guaranteed bandwidth and the ability to dynamically share surplus bandwidth and maximum bandwidth constraints, corresponding to a non-guaranteed bandwidth (Non -Assured) distribution, service assurance requirements adapted to have burst but the larger flow of business, such as downloading services; characteristics of Type 4 is the best effort (BestEffort), no bandwidth guarantee, suitable for less demanding latency and jitter services, such as WEB browsing service; Type 5 is a combination of the type of finish after the allocation guarantees and non-guaranteed bandwidth and best effort needs additional bandwidth allocated.

Operation, maintenance OAM

EPON OAM no undue consideration, simply defines a ONT remote fault indication, loopback and link monitoring. And is optionally supported.

GPON physical layer defines the PLOAM (Physical Layer OAM), high-level definition of the OMCI (ONT Management and Control Interface), performed at multiple levels OAM management. PLOAM for implementing data encryption, stateful inspection, error monitoring, and other functions. OMCI channel protocol used to manage high-level definition of business, including the ONU function parameter sets, T-CONT type and quantity of services, QoS parameters, request to run the event configuration information and performance statistics, automatic notification system to achieve OLT to ONT configuration, fault diagnostic, performance, and security management.

Link layer encapsulation and multi-service support

EPON Ethernet follows a simple data format, but in the Ethernet header adds 64 bytes of MPCP multipoint control protocol to achieve bandwidth allocation EPON system bandwidth polled, auto-discovery, ranging work. For data services other than services (such as TDM synchronization services) did not make too much research to support that many EPON manufacturers to develop a number of non-standard products to solve this problem, but not ideal, it is difficult to meet carrier-class QoS requirements.

GPON based entirely new transmission convergence (TC) layer, the sub-layer to complete the adaptation of senior business diversity that defines the ATM encapsulation and GFP encapsulation (Generic Framing Protocol), you can choose either to conduct business package. Given the current ATM application is not universal, so only support a GFP encapsulation GPON.lite equipment came into being, it is removed from the ATM protocol stack to reduce costs.

GFP is a universal link layer procedures applicable to a variety of business, ITU defined as G.7041.GPON GFP in a small number of modifications were made in the head GFP frame introduces Port ID, to support multi-port reuse; also introduced Frag (Fragment) segment of instructions to improve the effective bandwidth of the system and only support for variable length data, the data processing mode does not support block-oriented transparent data processing mode.

GPON has a powerful multi-service carrying capacity. GPON TC layer on nature are synchronized using a standard 8kHz (125μm) fixed length frames, which makes GPON can support end-timing and other quasi-synchronous traffic, in particular, can directly support TDM services, the so-called NativeTDM, GPON TDM services have "natural" support.


EPON and GPON is different, from the superior performance GPON EPON, but EPON has the advantage of time and cost, GPON is catching up, the future of broadband access market substitute who may not be who should be coexistence complementary. For bandwidth and multi-service, QoS and security requirements and high technology as the backbone of ATM customers, GPON will be more suitable. For cost-sensitive, QoS, security, less demanding customer base, EPON become dominant.

GPON maximum splitting ratio of 1: 128, EPON only 1:32;

Support GPON downlink bandwidth is not fixed, up to 2.5G / 1.25G, EPON supports only fixed upstream and downstream bandwidth of 1.25G / 1.25G;

Logic GPON transmission distance up to 60KM, EPON is 20KM.

But the actual effect is concerned, EPON and GPON less, the core part of almost all the same, GPON business a little more comprehensive support it, and now GPON EPON much less than the cost, mainly cost GPON optical modules is too high, Only after extensive use, etc. can drop too down.

Light source

The role of the light source is complete electrical / optical conversion, the light emitting device module key.

A light source for optical fiber communications requirements can be summarized as follows:
(1) peak wavelength emitted by the source, should be in the low-loss optical fiber within the window;
(2) there is a sufficiently high and stable output power;
(3) high conversion efficiency, driving low power, long life, high reliability;
(4) good color and direction;
(5) easy to modulate, fast response;
(6) the intensity of noise to be small;
(7) the intensity of the linear drive current is better.

Optical sensing technology to enhance server bandwidth

In today's fast-growing data volume, small to a server to the entire data center, the data bandwidth demand has become stronger and stronger. For many years, "Big Blue" IBM not only focused on server products and provide total solutions, but also to optical sensing technology, IBM tried to light sensor and transmitter integrated on a silicon chip, the optical signal processing chip directly ways to enhance the data bandwidth servers and data centers.

Recently, IBM has made in the field of new breakthroughs. On the nanoscale photonic chip, IBM researchers photon technology to replace the transmission of electronic signals, parallel integrated circuits carry different optical components, replace 100 nm integrated circuit manufacturing process. The integration of IBM's 90nm chip nanophotonics technology, can speed up the data transfer speed servers, super computers, data centers and other infrastructure, will help alleviate hinder the efficiency of data congestion.

IBM's nanophotonics chip bandwidth of each channel to provide more than 25Gbps, and by WDM (Wave-Division Multiplexing) technology, the nano-photonic chips can create multiple channels in a single fiber. In addition, the high data rate and multiplexing capability of large data stream, optical communication technology can provide TB-class data expansion to cope with the amount of data coming years continues explosive growth.

Big Data IT administrators to bring many challenges, such as massive data growth, costs increase, increase in power consumption and other issues, as well as poor reliability, downtime, data loss and other risks; these phenomena constitute the "flood of data," which In today's large data center performance is particularly prominent. IBM breakthroughs in the field of nano-photonic chips made undoubtedly one good way to deal with the flood of data. Nanophotonic chip will directly receive and transmit optical signals, high-speed data transmission through fiber optics, while the cost is low.

In fact, as early as 2010, manufactured nano-photonic chips IBM's core problem has been resolved, they will be a variety of nanophotonic components and CMOS integrated circuits; today, the technology was not only a new breakthrough, single-chip optical communications transceivers It is also already be produced by a conventional semiconductor manufacturing provider.

Currently, businesses are entering the era of big data, IBM's nanophotonics technology undoubtedly for these enterprises to build a bridge for seamless connection between enterprise applications and large data provided technical support.

FTTH difficult five crux, light copper binding or a recipe

In March 2012 the Ministry of Industry has announced plans to achieve nationwide coverage FTTH 35 million households in the year, but a dream awake, "fiber to the home is difficult," "Broadband is not wide," the problem did not get solved. The implementation of the light to change so that Chinese netizens project was eagerly looking forward to, but the reality is cruel, slow process of reforming the unbearable, too many users expressed anger and dissatisfaction. China's broadband network construction shortcomings presented more worrying, rectification imminent. FTTH really that difficult? What is the reason? There is no solution?

Originally a technician can hold 10 ADSL broadband every day, the light changed only a day to complete two.

Fiber to the home, a stumbling block too much.

1, high-care costs, expensive charges, operators, equipment manufacturers, users tripartite coordination difficult;

2, property slotting allowance, the operator, the property is difficult to coordinate the two sides;

3, most of the building, the old district no internal embedded fiber optic lines, which makes the transformation more difficult and more time consuming to install;

4, after the light changed, fixed must be connected to the power supply, the power went out in a hurry very tangled;

5, some people need some people do not need, it is difficult unified, carrier pressure.

Of course, in China this population, the relationship between a complex environment, there will be this kind of problem, fiber to the home difficult, already reasonable.

Expert Weapon: "Light copper" Combined, hybrid deployment

Earlier reports said that, in addition to improving network speed through fiber transformation, utilizing copper technology also enables certain bandwidth of 12M, or 16M. There is also news that a foreign telecommunications equipment manufacturers announced last year new technology "VDSL2 Vectoring" has been achieved under the conditions of the use of copper, the family of bandwidth up to 100M.

In this regard, communications Standards Institute Ministry of Industry and Telecommunications Research Institute, deputy director Li Ao said that the current building is not embedded inside most of the fiber-optic lines, fiber to the home to a large scale, it means to be in an existing building internal re-laying of fiber optic cable. Fiber itself impatience tension and bending characteristics, determine the layout of the optical fiber is much more difficult than copper. He believes that "fiber + copper" combinations can be used as an important reference and select the current broadband construction.

The main factors of the fiber attenuation

The main factors causing the fiber attenuation: intrinsic, bending, extrusion, impurities, uneven and docking.

Intrinsic: inherent loss of optical fiber, including: Rayleigh scattering, intrinsic absorption.

Bend: the curved portion of the fiber within the fiber due to scattering of light is lost, resulting in losses.

Extrusion: produce slight bending the fiber squeeze caused by wear and tear.

Impurities: impurities absorb the optical fiber and the propagation of light scattering in the optical fiber, losses.

Uneven: the refractive index of the fiber material loss caused by uneven.

Docking: loss generated when optical docking, such as: different axes (single-mode fiber coaxial requirement is less than 0.8μm), the end face of the axis is not perpendicular to the end face of injustice, butt diameter does not match the heart and poor weld quality.

When the light incident from one end of the optical fiber, is emitted from the other end, the intensity of light will diminish. This means that the optical signal propagation through the optical fiber, optical attenuation part. This shows that the fiber has certain substances or for some reason, an optical signal through the barrier. This is the transmission loss of the optical fiber. Only reduce fiber loss, in order to make the optical signal unimpeded.

Tunable laser application in optical communication

Tunable lasers network applications can be divided into two parts: static applications and dynamic applications.

In static applications, tunable laser wavelength is set in the course does not change over time. The most common application of static laser is used as a source of alternative, i.e., for use in dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) transmission system, so that a tunable laser to act as a plurality of fixed wavelength laser and a flexible back-up source of the laser can be reduced by the number of systems required to support all the different wavelengths of the line card.

Static applications, the main requirements for tunable laser is the price, output power and spectral characteristics, ie width and stability and it should replace the fixed-wavelength laser fairly. Wavelength tunable range greater the cost, the better, without the need to adjust the speed more quickly. Currently, with a precision of DWDM tunable laser system more and more applications.

Future, as a backup tunable lasers also require faster response speed. When a DWDM channel failure, a tunable laser can automatically enable it back to work. To achieve this function, the laser must be adjusted and locked at a wavelength of failure within 10 ms or less time, so as to ensure that the entire recovery time is shorter than the synchronous optical network requirements of 50 milliseconds or less.

In dynamic applications require a tunable laser wavelength can be changed regularly at work, in order to enhance the flexibility of the optical network. Such applications are generally required to provide dynamic wavelength in order to join or propose a wavelength from one network segment to meet the capacity required changes. It has been proposed a simple and more flexible ROADMs structure: this is based on use of tunable lasers and tunable filters architecture. Tunable lasers can add to the system certain wavelength, and tunable filter can filter out certain wavelengths from the system. Tunable lasers can also address cross-coupling inside the light wavelength blocking problems. To avoid this problem optical switching interface - Currently, most optical cross-coupled fiber ends using light - electricity. If you are using tunable lasers at the input to the OXC input, you can choose to protect certain wavelengths of light waves with a clear path to the end.

2015--2019 fiber optic test equipment market of China 6.32% annual growth

Infiniti foreign well-known research firm predicts that 2015-2019, China fiber optic test equipment market is expected compound annual growth rate of 6.32 percent.

Fiber Test Equipment (FOTE) is an electro-optical apparatus, the laser light source and detector, used in the performance of the optical fiber. Fiber optic test equipment can only be connected to one end of the fiber, perform multiple tests to test the defects and failures. Fiber optic test equipment can also determine the number of signal loss in a single fiber or whole at any point in the network. Fiber optic test equipment is widely used in network construction, service providers and operators to set up each component to identify the fiber network to identify potential problems or faults.

The report notes that China's major end-users can be divided into fiber optic test equipment, communications, cable television and other areas (government and corporate services). The focus of the market participants include the United States Agilent Technologies, Ai Sifu Canada, the United States Jie Di hearing.

According to the report, the main driver of fiber optic test equipment market is the fiber optic cable network replacement is increasing. Market development trend of the future R & D investment is growing, the main challenge facing infrastructure in emerging markets fiber optic network restricted.

PON history

PON research technology originated in 1995, in October 1998, ITU through the ATM-based PON technology standard --G.983 FSAN organization advocated, also known as BPON (BroadbandPON). Rate of 155Mbps, optional support 622Mbps speed.

EFMA (Ethernetin the First Mile Alliance) at the end of 2000 proposed Ethernet-PON (EPON) concept, transfer rate up to 1Gbps, based on simple Ethernet link layer encapsulation.

GPON (Gigabit-CapablePON) in September 2002 proposed by the FSAN Organization in March 2003 by the ITU G.984.1 and G.984.2 protocol. G.984.1 for GPON access system overall characteristics were prescribed; G.984.2 for GPON of ODN (Optical Distribution Network) Physical Media Dependent Sublayer been stipulated; in June 2004 passed the ITU G.984.3, it transmission Convergence (TC) layer requirements were specified.

2014-2020 global fiber-optic beam expander CAGR of 9%

Research and Markets research firm released a report, 2014-2020, the global fiber-optic beam expander compound annual growth rate of 9%.

The report said that because of the growing demand for optical components, in particular to improve the laser processing system, the efficiency and effectiveness of communications systems, fiber optic beam expander global market is experiencing high rates of growth.

Meanwhile, the rapid expansion of the telecommunications industry, fiber optic transmission and access networks is one of the main markets to promote sustained growth. 2020, private data communications, cable television, special areas and instrumentation areas are fiber optic beam expander major application market.

From suppliers, European companies are the world's leading supplier of fiber optic beam expander, including Swiss Diamond SA, American Thor laboratory Thor Labs, Luxembourg Qioptiq, Edmund Optics United States, US Micro Laser Systems Inc., Lumetrics, Germany Sill Optics, Jena optics, Lithuania Optolita UAB and the like.

How to identify the fiber quality is good or bad

As we all know, in the network cabling, since much lower light transmission loss in optical fibers than the electrical conduction losses in wires, fiber has frequently been used as the information transmission over long distances. But there are a lot of people do not know how to distinguish between good and bad quality of the fiber. Today, 10Gtek transceiver here and from five aspects you elaborate on how to identify the fiber quality is good or bad.

1, loose tube
Loose tube fiber optic cable installed with the general use of PBT polymer materials (polyethylene terephthalate), such as loose tube high strength, deformation and aging. Loose tube cable is of poor quality and sometimes substitute other materials, diameter thin, hand pinch on the flat, and drinking straws same, can not afford the protective effect of fiber.

2. Wire
The cable wire is mainly used to protect the optical fiber from mechanical tension. Good cable typically use high modulus phosphide steel wire, short-term rally is 1500N or 3000N. The poor quality cable will use a small diameter wire or wire instead of the ordinary, so that one easily rust; on the other hand, due to the tensile strength far less than 1500N, when construction could strain the fiber. High modulus phosphide steel wire general was gray, good toughness, easy to bend; and replacement of wire and other general kneading can be bent and a long time in the hands of two hanging cable box will rust break.

3, steel, aluminum
Cable in steel, aluminum is mainly used to protect the fiber from mechanical side pressure, moisture and other effects, better cable will generally use chrome strip. Low-quality fiber optic cable to rust treatment done on only one side of ordinary metal or called black (uncoated steel), replacing chrome strip, over time, will appear in the corroded cable, fiber optic hydrogen loss will increase, and because its easy to constitute a separate integrated sheath bonded sheath, tidal performance is very poor; some places instead of tinned steel chrome strip, tin strip surface of vaginal discharge, bubbles, etc. is inevitable, so the humid atmosphere and surface condensation or flooding conditions, prone to corrosion, especially corrosion faster under acidic conditions. Tin layer poor heat resistance, melting 232 degrees Celsius only, applications when due to high temperature extrusion jacket, making peeling strength uncertainty affecting the cable moisture resistance. The melting point of chromium up to 1900 degrees Celsius, chemically very stable at room temperature in air or immersed in water will not rust, corrosion resistance is very good, because the surface passivation layer is formed so easy oxidation resistance to environmental good performance. Aluminum is generally appear unqualified thermal paste method instead of coating aluminum casting aluminum qualified film, which will also affect cable performance.

4, jacket
Cable sheath is necessary to adapt to many different complex climatic conditions, but also to ensure the long-term (at least 25 years) stability. Cable jacket not only have a certain strength, low thermal deformation, abrasion, water permeability, heat-recoverable and friction coefficient, but also resistance to the environment should be strong, good materials performance and processing characteristics. Less or with poor sheathing material will appear after though through factory acceptance, but the quality defects period of time cracking, water seepage, if the use of recycled plastics to replace quality polyethylene jacket material is more serious. Made of high-quality fiber optic cable sheathing materials, after a cable jacket smooth and bright, uniform thickness, no bubbles, otherwise there will be cable coarse skin phenomenon, and because many impurities in the raw materials, a closer look can be found in the cable jacket has a lot of very small Hang wow, and because thin, the entire outer diameter of the cable is much smaller than the high-quality fiber optic cable. Indoor fiber optic cable, usually made of high quality flame retardant PVC, appearance should be smooth, bright, good flexibility, easy to peel; otherwise there will be poor skin finish, easy and sleeve fiber, aramid adhesion phenomena.

5, ointment
There are cream and ointment fiber cable cream, under normal circumstances, should fill the entire fiber loose tube cream, ointment cable cable should be filled every crevice of the cable core under pressure. Now there is sufficient fiber paste or less half-full approach, then there is only cable cream in the core layer outside wiping, while others are not sufficient charge in the middle of the cable ends. This will make optical fibers are not well protected, affect the transmission performance of optical fiber attenuation, poor water resistance less than the national standard, once the cable accidental seepage will cause the whole link seepage scrapped. And under normal circumstances, even if the accident repair of seepage water seepage also only some can, and you do not need to start over. (National standard water-blocking performance: three meters of fiber optic cable, one meter of water pressure twenty-four hours without water seepage) will also appear if the above problems with poor ointment, and the ointment may be due to poor thixotropic , will cause microbending loss optical fiber, the entire link transmission characteristics of failure; analysis of molecular hydrogen evolution reaction if H ointment and cable acidic will occur in metallic materials, and fiber attenuation increases rapidly in case of H, causing the entire link interrupt transmission.

IHS Infonetics released first quarter 2015 report on the optical networking market

Market research firm IHS Infonetics recently released the first quarter of 2015 optical network hardware market research reports.

According to the report, thanks to a return to growth in EMEA and Japan large-scale deployment of 100Gbps equipment, in the first quarter year on year market, including WDM and SONET / SDH, including the entire optical network hardware growth of 5%, the total amount of $2.7 billion. WDM equipment to achieve growth of 9% growth for 11 consecutive quarters.

It reported that optical networking market in EMEA EMEA consecutive year of growth in the second quarter, which represents a long-term stagnation in this area optical networking market is finally over. Alcatel-Lucent EMEA market's biggest suppliers.

The report also noted that the Internet content provider ICP procurement has accounted for 10% of the North American optical networking market continues to be a hot optical networking market. For Internet companies need to adjust the product line has become a must-ray equipment companies.

Infonetics market analyst Andrew Schmitt pointed out that the focus of the optical networking market is shifting to the metro. More manufacturers have introduced equipment for the metro market and gradually volume production. Traditional telecom operators and emerging data center operators to deploy 100G Metro devices will be faster. Alcatel-Lucent, Ciena, Cisco, Huawei and Infinera 100G will be the biggest beneficiaries of the market.

Also, according to C114's report, the report is expected in 2015 annual WDM market will reach $11 billion by 2019 this figure will increase to $15.3 billion, accounting for 97% of the entire optical networking market. In the first quarter, Huawei, Alcatel-Lucent, Ciena three occupy the top three positions optical networks. Which, thanks to large-scale global deployment of 100G OTN, Huawei's optical network of strong revenue growth of 20% in the fourth quarter rolling market share to 22.3% for 6 years ranked first in the world and in the Asia Pacific (APAC), Europe, Africa and the Middle East (EMEA), China and the US in Latin America (CALA) region with 36.2% of the market respectively, 25.1%, 20.7% of the share are ranked first.

5G wireless network faster than fiber

Every decade or so, the mobile phone network should replacement. From about 1980, the first generation of mobile phone network using analog technology. Since 1991, the arrival of the second-generation mobile phone network, mobile phone network begin digitizing. Until 2001, the third generation mobile phone network from legacy circuit switching to packet switching efficiency. Around 2010, the fourth-generation network on a large scale using IP (Internet Protocol) technology that allows mobile devices to access the Internet at broadband speeds. Each new generation networks are a new band, faster, more emphasis on the data stream, rather than simply transmit voice.

Recently, wireless operators began to consider the fifth-generation (5G) network using what technology. Google and Facebook and other industry giants have recently expressed outside to enter the mobile radio network, mobile operators felt a sense of urgency. If the mobile operators to reach agreement, they hope to launch in 2020 a fifth-generation mobile networks.

This may be a little too ambitious. Front also has many years of wrangling bargaining, policy makers and standard holders will try to convince their operators and telecommunications companies to use their own technology, because it is essential for their development. However, with the previous generations of mobile technology is not the same, 5G hope to become truly global standards wherever people can use their phones when abroad do not have to bother his own SIM card into your local card.

5G technology will give us what to expect? At the moment, we can be sure of is that the delay time 5G networks (ie response time), only about one millisecond. 4G network now allows the use of two phones interconnected time of 50 milliseconds, and the widespread use of 3G networks require 500 milliseconds.

Even the 4G network, cloud system to send urgent instructions to the unmanned vehicles, the speed fast enough. This rate is not enough to parties involved in a conference call to provide a seamless language translations, not to mention the remote operation guide surgeons save lives. Many real-time wireless applications requires no more than a millisecond time delay.

Another basic requirement is less than one gigabit per second (1Gbps) data rate, the future will take a few gigabit per second data rate. If you want to watch online users ultra-high definition video on your phone or tablet (eg, 4k video, coming soon 8k video), this speed is essential.

Currently 4G network based on LTE technology can transmit 10 to 100 megabytes of data per second. Most mobile operators are still the launch of its LTE service, some operators have begun to install the latest LTE-Advanced devices (ie real 4G, former operators who deceive consumers say is premature release of 4G). Peak data rates of LTE-A allegedly 1Gbps. However, in practice it is only with 250Mbps.

So, 5G technology compared to 4G, which improve? It's hard to say. Based on past experience, each generation of new technology faster than the previous generation times, the average download speed 5G networks most likely to reach 1Gbps, as the technology matures, there is likely to rise to 10Gbps. Such wireless transmission rate even higher than currently used to provide Internet access and high-definition television to the home of the fiber even faster.

Let LET-A greatly enhanced speed than previous generations of technology are two new technologies: carrier aggregation and MIMO antennas. Neither of which belong to the new technology, but are likely to play a very large role in the realization of the potential of 5G.

For its part, the carrier aggregation by increasing the download multiple local base station receives a signal from the speed, rather than receiving a signal from a base station with the strongest signal nearby. These different bands gathered together after the data can greatly improve transmission. In LTE-A technology that allows up to five 20MHz bandwidth 100MHz carrier unit aggregated into a single carrier.

Band is a global shortage of resources, most mobile phone companies already use the frequency can take advantage of. As a result, they are seldom continuous band. Fortunately, the carrier aggregation only allows mobile operators to improve the data transfer rate, but also allows them to different frequency bands spliced ​​together. After five years 5G wireless services into a more crowded world, carrier aggregation becomes even more important.

MIMO (multiple-input / multiple-output) is used the same way. MIMO transmission through two or more antennas of two or more of the data streams, so that the receiving antenna processing all incoming signals, not just the strongest signal. It's like with a single-lane highway instead of a country road. Current MIMO applications typically by sending and receiving ends use three or four antennas. If both ends use dozens or even hundreds antenna, what will happen? This will greatly improve the download speed, more efficient use of available spectrum.

However, 5G which channels will be used in the end is still not finalized. Today's wireless devices are congested channel 700MHz to 2.6GHz range. This is not to say that after 5G launch today of 4G, 3G networks use even channel will suddenly be vacated. Mobile operators will continue to number in the millions not immediately upgrade to the latest device users to continue to provide their traditional business, these users may not upgrade equipment for several years.

The most likely scenario is, 5G from today's UHF (Ultra High Frequency) band shifted to 3Ghz SHF 30GHz and between (UHF) band, and even between EHF 30GHz and 300GHz (very high frequency) band . Currently these bands (its wavelength is called "millimeter wave") is used for satellite TV, microwave relay links, air traffic radar, radio astronomy and amateur radio.

In most parts of the world, around 60GHz band is designated as CB. WiFi researchers are planned by the new 802.11ad standard is not zoned for exclusive use 60GHz band for wireless transmission of ultra-high-definition home video. In a typical configuration, 802.11ad 6Gbps transfer rates can be achieved within an appropriate distance.

This band is also flawed. One is that the frequency of extreme easily be wall, even in people who walk around the barrier. These frequencies will oxygen molecules in the air resonance is absorbed, although only at a distance of over 100 meters time will have a significant absorption. However, the frequency up to 70GHz or more, the case of air absorbed completely absent. Allegedly Finnish network infrastructure company Nokia has made use of 70GHz frequency 115Gbps transfer rate in laboratory tests.

All this means 5G technologies will require a base station closer to the user than the current cell tower. This has been an ongoing trend happened. So far, the microcell has been used mainly in the building to solve the problem of poor cell phone signal. To deal with 5G data, blank areas between the existing mobile phone base stations need to deploy hundreds of micro cellular access point. These small antenna box will be installed on the lamp post or a building, almost no one would notice them, but no one will oppose installed and set up a new cell phone towers are often not the same.

People can not help but think, even in the billions of digital devices via radio contact with each other "things" era, 5G technology provides the bandwidth enough to use, and develop the next generation of mobile network technology will become unnecessary. Network architects hope 5G technology has become the end of the mobile network technology, they think the next job just some evolutionary improvements. It is a good idea. However, past experience tells us that even the most intelligent predictions will be a breakthrough in the future.

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A-DryTM all dry Cable (2-144 core). The product uses a special new Flex PCE materials and new technology to ensure that after a loose tube cable minimum bend radius of 30mm, effectively increasing the bending properties of the overall product, ensure the safety of the fiber in the termination process. A-DryTM product is all-dry structure to meet the backbone, metro, access, indoor and vertical wiring engineering applications, compared to grease filled cable, A-DryTM products have light weight, flexibility good, clean grease-free, easy to open peel, easy to follow, and high-friendly construction and many other advantages, improve laying efficiency, reduce construction and post operation and maintenance costs, reduce carbon emissions, it is a new generation of green optical communication products.

Italian operators to invest 6.4 billion euros to push fiber broadband plan

Recently, the three telecom operators in Italy Metroweb, Vodafone and Wind will launch cooperation disclose deployment of a national fiber optic network plan.

The national fiber optic network deployment plan will also have the intention to join other businesses open. But the three companies were not disclosed further information about the range of network construction, but also did not give a timetable. The companies said only in accordance with the ultra-fast broadband plans to build the network of the Italian Government.

In February this year, according to media reports that the Italian government is considering the introduction of a budget of up to 4 billion euros (about 28.331 billion yuan) of fiber stimulus plan, the latter may be an additional 2.4 billion euros, it aims to increase domestic fiber optic network coverage.

At present, the domestic fixed-line market in Italy is facing a variable. Vodafone and Telecom Italia are on the acquisition of Metroweb showed great interest, which has a 7200-kilometer fiber-optic network in Milan. Previously, Vodafone has tentatively been Fastweb lipped intent to acquire the latter. But Fastweb rejected Vodafone's offer. It is reported that, Metroweb being planned in 100 Italian cities to launch fiber.

Optical Communication Systems technology trends - beyond 100G

With the progress of social information process, to video, cloud computing, networking and the representative of the emerging business demand for bandwidth surge, the existing backbone optical transmission system interconnection capacity can not meet the growing demand, an urgent requirement to further enhance transmission capacity.

In fact, as experienced from 2.5Gbit/s-> 10Gbit/s-> 40Gbit/s-> 100Gbit/s transmission capacity to enhance network surge in demand, its single channel optical transmission system transmission rate, is preparing the next generation Ultra 100G optical transmission systems. The optical transmission multiplexing dimension from a simple time division multiplex development, wavelength, frequency, polarization, multidimensional multiplex transmission mode, multi-pronged approach. Future demand for network capacity optical transmission, Pbit multi-core space division multiplexing as well as orbital angular momentum of photons reuse industry has become a hot topic. In the specific implementation, advanced quadrature amplitude modulation, coherent reception, digital signal processing, multi-carrier technology and optoelectronic integrated technology and other new technologies have been gradually introduced and continue to optimize and improve the optical transmission performance and reduce the cost of optical transmission.

Consider cost and compatibility, etc., based on full use of the fiber optic cable has been laid, the existing optical transmission systems by upgrading and transformation of the optical transceiver unit to raise a single wavelength channel transmission data rate of ways to enhance system capacity, it has the best cost and feasibility. Ultra 100G optical transmission will inherit design 100G optical transmission systems, the use of polarization multiplexing, multi-level modulation spectrum efficiency, increase the use of digital coherent reception receiver sensitivity and channel equalization capability.

Ultra 100G optical transmission is intended to further enhance the transmission capacity in a single fiber band resources available under the same circumstances, the key is to improve the efficiency of spectrum utilization and spectrum resources. For optical transmission systems, narrowband filtering effect of fiber loss caused by the window limits the available bandwidth of optical devices and optical transmission path caused by cascade claim maximize spectrum efficiency light transmission; non-linear effect of the optical transmission path optical transmission power requirement maximize efficiency. In addition, the level of light transmission symbol photovoltaic device baseband bandwidth also restricted.

In response to these super-100G optical transmission challenges, solve industry from the following aspects: ① full use of the optical signal can be modulated dimension (amplitude, phase, polarization) to carry data to improve spectral efficiency; ② multi-carrier orthogonal frequency division multiplexing technology to improve spectrum utilization and reduce the transmission rate to suppress symbol dispersion effect, reduce light, electrical parts bandwidth requirements; ③ using digital coherent receiver technology to improve the sensitivity and channel equalization capability of the receiver, using higher gain The error correction coding to improve the robustness of the system. ④ use of advanced optical integration technology to reduce size, lower power consumption and increase system reliability.

It should be noted that, despite the multi-dimensional multi-level modulation can improve spectral efficiency, to reduce the transmission channel and the photovoltaic device bandwidth requirements, but the minimum spacing will reduce the multilevel modulation symbol constellation between sensitivity and lower OSNR transmission damage tolerance capability. Therefore, the selection of higher-level QAM modulation may improve spectral efficiency and transmission rate over 100G, but since the strength of noise and phase noise tolerance diminished capacity, the transmission distance may be much lower than the current system 100G.

Optoelectronic devices integration technology is the basis for ultra-100G optical transmission to achieve. Although the multi-carrier transmission stages can reduce the bandwidth requirements of optical systems, electrical parts, the device power consumption is reduced by the square of the linear growth increase, but the bandwidth and power requirements are still alarming. Optoelectronic devices integrated technology is a key factor Ultra 100G optical transmission design feasibility and system performance.

Given the current business needs and optoelectronic devices technology level, 400Gbit/s optical transmission rate is the most feasible and cost-effective solution. Gemini carrier based on a flexible grid polarization multiplexing 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (2SC-PM-16-QAM) a 400G optical transmission is generally optimistic about the industry one of the options. The program for each transmission channel occupies 75GHz bandwidth and spectral efficiency can reach 5.3bit/s/Hz, compared with 100Gbit/s optical transmission 2bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency can be greatly improved. As a result of more intensive 16QAM modulation, 400G transmission damage tolerance capability (transmission distance) declined compared with 100G optical transmission system, expected to be the first application in the metro and data center interconnect applications.

OFC2015: WDM-PON alternative market

AEPONYX is a WDM-PON Systems from Montreal, Canada. This year's show editor for WDM-PON has a little surprise. In addition to publicly display their Huawei WDM-PON system, optical passive device company Shanghai Xiang also exhibited in the face of the WDM-PON WDM modules.

First say that, regardless of AEPONYX or Huawei, their first sight of WDM-PON is not a traditional FTTx access market, but other. Huawei declared their WDM-PON more lanes for use in corporate networks and 4G LTE applications such prequel, AEPONYX told edit their WDM PON used in the data center interconnect.

Let me talk about Huawei WDM PON their claims to adopt two new technologies. One is called automatic wavelength-locked laser wavelength-independent technology, to address the use of fixed-wavelength laser service provisioning and inventory problems. After the second is the use of a similar high density QSFP package integration technologies, higher mounting density OLT's. From Huawei's press release, the so-called wavelength independent Huawei should use a tunable laser. This makes editing immediately think of this market-oriented Zhejiang Lante Pu. And editor at the time and AEPONYX chat, they are also considering the use of Lante Pu tunable lasers. Zhejiang Lante Pu seems this market position is very good.

Traditionally, everyone thinks that the best WDM PON development should be South Korea, but the Korean manufacturers seem to not have the product. Touches AEPONYX two years the news constantly. WDM PON for this new company from Montreal, Canada, edited curious. The company's founder and CTO Francois D. Menard told the editor, AEPONYX of A representative of Active, E Ethernet, Y is Lambda, represents wavelength, X on behalf of the cross-connect. Their company name on behalf of their products for the purpose. Why is this company can be born in Montreal? Francois said that Canada Montreal is a great place for data center construction, where there was more than 40 data centers. AEPONYX start from a local science and technology cooperation program. He graduated from the University of Sherbrooke prestigious research in the field of telecommunications. The WDM PON used within the data center is to directly address the tensions within the data center fiber resources. This editor a little skeptical, but Francois firmly told edit, optical fiber data center resources more scarce, WDM PON promising. The OFC, AEPONYX focused exhibition is to 10G WDM PON products. Francois Menard, said in a press release, the new competitive launch tunable optical modules allow the introduction of standardized fully interoperable applications of single fiber WDM-PON solutions possible.

AEPONYX renewed escalation of WDM-PON central office multiplexing demultiplexer, WDM-PON remote node and other products, and built to support single fiber WDM filter applications. Use their Colornode C / 2 and C / 2 WDM filter can support single fiber deployment simple and economical. Their WDM-PON can be superimposed on existing GPON systems, to improve the transmission capacity of existing GPON systems of more than 160 times. If you insert a CFP-2 ACO coherent optical modules, their WDM PON system can also support 100Gbps applications.

Francois ambitious allows editing remember the discussion of WDM PON market years ago when the interview Ignis. Ignis is a Montreal company's operations there. Perhaps the city with WDM PON have any special links. GPON year first applications in the mobile backhaul, now WDM PON open market if the data center interconnect, it is not surprising.

This report is aimed at small equipment manufacturers show. Having WDM PON, we have to mention that the other. Chengdu Oufei Ling was originally a company to develop optical modules. But in this OFC, they exhibited more small fiber optic line protection equipment, especially their SOA Tap a device called integrated multi-channel semiconductor optical amplifiers in a 1U rack, is impressive.

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