5G wireless network faster than fiber

Every decade or so, the mobile phone network should replacement. From about 1980, the first generation of mobile phone network using analog technology. Since 1991, the arrival of the second-generation mobile phone network, mobile phone network begin digitizing. Until 2001, the third generation mobile phone network from legacy circuit switching to packet switching efficiency. Around 2010, the fourth-generation network on a large scale using IP (Internet Protocol) technology that allows mobile devices to access the Internet at broadband speeds. Each new generation networks are a new band, faster, more emphasis on the data stream, rather than simply transmit voice.

Recently, wireless operators began to consider the fifth-generation (5G) network using what technology. Google and Facebook and other industry giants have recently expressed outside to enter the mobile radio network, mobile operators felt a sense of urgency. If the mobile operators to reach agreement, they hope to launch in 2020 a fifth-generation mobile networks.

This may be a little too ambitious. Front also has many years of wrangling bargaining, policy makers and standard holders will try to convince their operators and telecommunications companies to use their own technology, because it is essential for their development. However, with the previous generations of mobile technology is not the same, 5G hope to become truly global standards wherever people can use their phones when abroad do not have to bother his own SIM card into your local card.

5G technology will give us what to expect? At the moment, we can be sure of is that the delay time 5G networks (ie response time), only about one millisecond. 4G network now allows the use of two phones interconnected time of 50 milliseconds, and the widespread use of 3G networks require 500 milliseconds.

Even the 4G network, cloud system to send urgent instructions to the unmanned vehicles, the speed fast enough. This rate is not enough to parties involved in a conference call to provide a seamless language translations, not to mention the remote operation guide surgeons save lives. Many real-time wireless applications requires no more than a millisecond time delay.

Another basic requirement is less than one gigabit per second (1Gbps) data rate, the future will take a few gigabit per second data rate. If you want to watch online users ultra-high definition video on your phone or tablet (eg, 4k video, coming soon 8k video), this speed is essential.

Currently 4G network based on LTE technology can transmit 10 to 100 megabytes of data per second. Most mobile operators are still the launch of its LTE service, some operators have begun to install the latest LTE-Advanced devices (ie real 4G, former operators who deceive consumers say is premature release of 4G). Peak data rates of LTE-A allegedly 1Gbps. However, in practice it is only with 250Mbps.

So, 5G technology compared to 4G, which improve? It's hard to say. Based on past experience, each generation of new technology faster than the previous generation times, the average download speed 5G networks most likely to reach 1Gbps, as the technology matures, there is likely to rise to 10Gbps. Such wireless transmission rate even higher than currently used to provide Internet access and high-definition television to the home of the fiber even faster.

Let LET-A greatly enhanced speed than previous generations of technology are two new technologies: carrier aggregation and MIMO antennas. Neither of which belong to the new technology, but are likely to play a very large role in the realization of the potential of 5G.

For its part, the carrier aggregation by increasing the download multiple local base station receives a signal from the speed, rather than receiving a signal from a base station with the strongest signal nearby. These different bands gathered together after the data can greatly improve transmission. In LTE-A technology that allows up to five 20MHz bandwidth 100MHz carrier unit aggregated into a single carrier.

Band is a global shortage of resources, most mobile phone companies already use the frequency can take advantage of. As a result, they are seldom continuous band. Fortunately, the carrier aggregation only allows mobile operators to improve the data transfer rate, but also allows them to different frequency bands spliced ​​together. After five years 5G wireless services into a more crowded world, carrier aggregation becomes even more important.

MIMO (multiple-input / multiple-output) is used the same way. MIMO transmission through two or more antennas of two or more of the data streams, so that the receiving antenna processing all incoming signals, not just the strongest signal. It's like with a single-lane highway instead of a country road. Current MIMO applications typically by sending and receiving ends use three or four antennas. If both ends use dozens or even hundreds antenna, what will happen? This will greatly improve the download speed, more efficient use of available spectrum.

However, 5G which channels will be used in the end is still not finalized. Today's wireless devices are congested channel 700MHz to 2.6GHz range. This is not to say that after 5G launch today of 4G, 3G networks use even channel will suddenly be vacated. Mobile operators will continue to number in the millions not immediately upgrade to the latest device users to continue to provide their traditional business, these users may not upgrade equipment for several years.

The most likely scenario is, 5G from today's UHF (Ultra High Frequency) band shifted to 3Ghz SHF 30GHz and between (UHF) band, and even between EHF 30GHz and 300GHz (very high frequency) band . Currently these bands (its wavelength is called "millimeter wave") is used for satellite TV, microwave relay links, air traffic radar, radio astronomy and amateur radio.

In most parts of the world, around 60GHz band is designated as CB. WiFi researchers are planned by the new 802.11ad standard is not zoned for exclusive use 60GHz band for wireless transmission of ultra-high-definition home video. In a typical configuration, 802.11ad 6Gbps transfer rates can be achieved within an appropriate distance.

This band is also flawed. One is that the frequency of extreme easily be wall, even in people who walk around the barrier. These frequencies will oxygen molecules in the air resonance is absorbed, although only at a distance of over 100 meters time will have a significant absorption. However, the frequency up to 70GHz or more, the case of air absorbed completely absent. Allegedly Finnish network infrastructure company Nokia has made use of 70GHz frequency 115Gbps transfer rate in laboratory tests.

All this means 5G technologies will require a base station closer to the user than the current cell tower. This has been an ongoing trend happened. So far, the microcell has been used mainly in the building to solve the problem of poor cell phone signal. To deal with 5G data, blank areas between the existing mobile phone base stations need to deploy hundreds of micro cellular access point. These small antenna box will be installed on the lamp post or a building, almost no one would notice them, but no one will oppose installed and set up a new cell phone towers are often not the same.

People can not help but think, even in the billions of digital devices via radio contact with each other "things" era, 5G technology provides the bandwidth enough to use, and develop the next generation of mobile network technology will become unnecessary. Network architects hope 5G technology has become the end of the mobile network technology, they think the next job just some evolutionary improvements. It is a good idea. However, past experience tells us that even the most intelligent predictions will be a breakthrough in the future.

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